FINAL REPORTS FROM THE WYOMING DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH CENTER

Completed Projects for FY2009 (Oct. 1, 2008 to Sept. 30, 2009)

SNOW SNAKE® PERFORMANCE MONITORING

Paul McCarthy
Keith Haskins
PMPC
WY 09/01F; RS02207
(ROSAP 24637)

Snow Snake Performance

Abstract:  A recent study, Three-Dimensional Roughness Elements for Snow Retention, demonstrated positive evidence for the effectiveness of Snow Snakes, a new type of snow fence suitable for use within the highway right-of-way. Snow Snakes are wireframes covered with a continuous extruded plastic fabric and aptly named for their reptilian appearance.  This study evaluates the effectiveness of using Snow Snakes as a viable means to reduce road ice formed by blowing snow originating within the highway right-of-way.  Snowdrift depths and lengths were measured along transects intersecting various snow fence types and configurations; this data was used to calculate trapped snow volumes and water equivalents. From Dec. 31, 2007, to Feb. 6, 2008 observation period, Snow Snakes trapped and prevented approximately 622 tons of snow from potentially interacting with the roadway surface to form slush and ice.  Due to insufficient field data, obtaining conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of using Snow Snakes as a viable means to reduce road ice formed by blowing snow originating within the highway right-of-way will require additional study.

Derivative and matching reports

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data. 

PRACTICAL OPERATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF TETON PASS AVALANCHE MONITORING INFRASOUND

Ernie Scott
Inter-Mountain Laboratories
WY 09/02F; RS06206
(ROSAP 24378)

Teton Pass Avalanche Monitoring

Abstract:  Highway snow avalanche forecasting programs typically rely on weather and field observations to make road closure and hazard evaluations. Recently, infrasonic avalanche monitoring technology has been developed for practical use near Teton Pass, WY to provide another tool for Wyoming State Highway 22 technicians in their operational forecasting and decision making. The technology detects low-frequency sound waves produced by avalanches with automated near real-time processing provided to facilitate an alarm. Monitoring system operation provides information to confirm results from avalanche control work, notification of natural avalanche events, and verification of explosive detonations. The ability to monitor avalanche activity in poor visibility and confirm avalanche control work results are powerful tools for assessing highway avalanche hazard and has changed the way WYDOT operates in its mission to provide a safe and efficient transportation route.

Derivative and matching reports:  

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report. The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

EVALUATION OF AN ACTIVE WILDLIFE-SENSING AND DRIVER WARNING SYSTEM AT TRAPPER'S POINT

Qiyue Dai
Rhonda Young, orcid.org/0000-0001-6745-5008
Steven Vander Giessen
University of Wyoming
WY 09/03F (RS10206)
(ROSAP 17220)

Evaluating Wildlife Sensing and Driver Warning System

Abstract:  Collisions with wildlife are a serious concern on American highways. In Wyoming, the concern has prompted the Wyoming Department of Transportation to construct an experimental wildlife detection and driver warning system at Trapper’s Point, north of the town of Pinedale on US Highway 191. The focus of this thesis is two-fold: to develop a framework to determine whether the driver warning system is effective at modifying driver behavior and to develop a framework to determine whether the wildlife detection system reliably detects the presence of wildlife on the roadside. Transportation agencies have attempted to solve the deer-vehicle collision problem with a wide variety of solutions. Published literature was reviewed to analyze the effectiveness of these solutions with a spotlight on other active, wildlife-detecting driver warning systems. The system at Trapper’s Point utilizes the Eagle Intrusion Detection System (EIDS), originally developed by Telonics, Inc for military applications. Seismic and passive infrared sensors are designed to detect the presence of wildlife and trigger the flashing lights atop six signs that read “DEER ON ROAD WHEN FLASHING”. Many difficulties with the wildlife detection system and data collection equipment were experienced during this study. This report describes these problems in detail and analyzes the system using three measures of effectiveness: accurate detection of wildlife, changes in driver behavior, and crash reduction.

Derivative and matching reports:

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

SNOW SUPPORTING STRUCTURES FOR AVALANCHE HAZARD REDUCTION, 151 AVALANCHE, 
HIGHWAY U.S. 89/191, JACKSON, WYOMING

Rand Decker
Joshua Hewes, orcid.org/0000-0002-2098-4399
Scott Merry
Perry Wood
InterAlpine Associates
 WY 09/05F; RS05205
(ROSAP 17221)

Snow Supporting Structures

Abstract: The 151 Avalanche, near Jackson, Wyoming, has historically, avalanched to the road below 1.5 to 2 times a year. U.S. 89/191 is four lanes and carries an estimated 8,000 vehicles per day in the winter months. The starting zone of the 151 Avalanche is 1,140 vertical feet above the roadway. With the adjacent development of the South Park areas of the Jackson Hole Valley, using explosives for avalanche control is unacceptable. As a consequence, this project has led to the design and configuration of deployment of snow supporting structures that, if implemented, would provide a more effective avalanche defense system. This has resulted in a unit structural and foundation design for 70 snow supporting structures. The unit design will support a maximum of 6.6 feet of snowpack. The 70 structures, deployed with a separation of 50 feet longitudinally, will cover the dominant portions of the 151 Avalanche starting zone. Moreover, novel deployment configuration has been developed to also retain the visual characteristics of the starting zone as seen from the Jackson Hole valley floor. This factor critically into the National Environment Policy Act (NEPA) rule-making responsibilities of the USDA Bridger-Teton National Forest and their resulting favorable Decision Memo. The resulting design of a snow supporting structure is 12 feet long and 5.5 feet high, installed nearly perpendicular to the slope which is inclined at 35 degrees. A single structure weighs 1,400 pounds, and the cost is estimated at $16,600 per structure; fabricated, transported, and installed.

Derivative and matching reports:

  • J. Hewes, R. Decker, S. Merry, Design and Construction of Snow Supporting Structures for Milepost 151 Avalanche, Jackson Wyoming, International Snow Science Workshop Grenoble, 2013.
  • J. Yount, R. Decker, R. Rice, L. Wells.  Reducing Avalanche Hazard to US Route 89-91 in Jackson, Wyoming using Snow Sails.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

WRRSP:  WYOMING RURAL ROAD SAFETY PROGRAM

Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E.,  orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
Cheng Zhong 
Bart Evans
University of Wyoming
WY 09/06F; RS01207
(ROSAP 17645)

Wyoming Rural Road Safety Program

Abstract: SAFETEA-LU contains language indicating that State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) will be required to address safety on local and rural roads. The Wyoming Local Technical Assistant Program (LTAP) coordinated an effort in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT), as well as Wyoming counties and cities, to identify low-cost safety improvements on high-risk rural roads in Wyoming. In this project, safety techniques and methodologies were developed to identify and then rank high-risk locations on these rural roads. This project is unique because of the high percentages of gravel roads at the local level in Wyoming. The evaluation procedure developed is based on historical crash records and field evaluations. Three Wyoming counties were included in the pilot study. The statewide implementation began in 2009. This report describes the findings and recommendations of this research study that is not only beneficial to Wyoming but also to those states interested in implementing a High-Risk Rural Road (HRRR) Program.

Derivative and matching reports:

  • K. Ksaibati, C. Zhong.  WRRSP:  Wyoming Rural Road Safety Program, North Dakota State University, October 2009.
  • K. Ksaibati, B. Evans, D. Shinstine.  Implementation of the Rural Road Safety ProgramTransportation Research Record:  Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2472, 2015.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

RECOMMENDED MESSAGES FOR TRUCK-MOUNTED CHANGEABLE MESSAGE SIGNS DURING MOBILE OPERATIONS

Brooke R. Ullman
Nada D. Trout
Gerald L. Ullman
Texas Transportation Institute
 WY09/07F; RS02208
(ROSAP 17649)

Messages for Truck Mounted Changeable Message Signs

Abstract:  The use of truck-mounted changeable message signs (TMCMSs) for mobile operations is desirable for providing drivers with information to better prepare them for unexpected conditions. Traditionally, temporary traffic control for mobile operations has been limited to arrow panels and sometimes static warning messages mounted to the work vehicle. The use of warning signs in advance of the work operation is typically not practical due to the constant movement or stop-and-go nature of the work. TMCMSs can fill an information gap for these mobile operations and providing drivers with better information regarding both the operation and the expected actions based on the operation. Based on the findings of both human factors, laboratory studies, and field evaluations conducted during this research and basic message design principles, researchers have created a sampling of recommended messages for use on TMCMS during mobile operations. These messages are defined by the type of work, road type, and identified concerns being addressed by the message.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

IMPROVING FOUNDATION DESIGN IN ROCK:  LOAD TEST AT BURMA ROAD OVERPASS

John P. Turner
University of Wyoming
FHWA-WY 09/10F; RS07209
(ROSAP 17648)

Improving Foundation Design in Rock Load Test

Abstract:  This report describes the results of a bi-directional load test on a drilled shaft foundation in weak sandstone. The test was conducted in conjunction with the construction of a new bridge at Burma Road Overpass on I-90, in Gillette, Wyoming. The purpose was to provide much-needed information on side resistance and base resistance in weak sandstone of the Tertiary Wasatch Formation. Load test results are compared to design equations for both soil and rock. Design equations based on treating the weak sandstone as cohesionless soil provide close agreement with side resistance values measured by the load test. Design equations based on treating the sandstone as a rock also provide reasonable agreement with the load test results, but comparisons were limited by the inability to obtain representative intact core samples suitable for measuring the uniaxial compressive strength of the sandstone. Unit base resistance mobilized in the load test exceeds by a significant amount the value of unit base resistance predicted using AASHTO and FHWA design equations. The load-displacement response of the test shaft is analyzed by fitting to an analytical model, providing a practical tool for evaluation of trial designs to satisfy service limit states. Finally, the results of the load test are used to illustrate the application of AASHTO LRFD methodology to the design of drilled shafts for the bridge at Burma Road Overpass.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

Completed Projects for FY2010 (Oct. 1, 2009 to Sept. 30, 2010)

EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR ASR-AFFECTED CONCRETE

Kim Basham
KB Engineering
WY 10/01F; RS04206
(ROSAP 17647)

ASR Affected Concrete

Abstract:  This research project was undertaken to evaluate the potential of using surface treatments including lithium nitrate, sodium tartrate, siloxanes, silane, and boiled linseed oil to mitigate or slow the rate of concrete deterioration associated with alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Significant amounts of concrete pavements, curbs, and gutters, sidewalks, etc. across Wyoming suffer from ASR and related freeze/thaw damage. Any extension of the service life of concrete through remediation can result in significant cost savings to the Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT). Also, materials and pavement engineers need methods to evaluate damage and rates of deterioration to help assess the life cycle of ASR-affected concrete.  Specific objectives of this investigation were: 1) evaluate the effectiveness of applying various surface treatments to mitigate or slow down the deterioration rate associated with ASR, and 2) evaluate the appropriateness of using the Damage Rating Index (DRI) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) methods for assessing concrete damage and determining the rate of deterioration caused by ASR.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

REDUCTION OF WIND-INDUCED VIBRATIONS IN HIGH-MAST LIGHT POLES

Emily Ahern
Jay Puckett orcid.org/0000-0002-0834-7549
University of Wyoming
WY 10/02F; RS01210 
(ROSAP 23968)

Reduction of Wind Induced Vibrtions in High Mast Light Poles

Abstract:  High-mast light poles are frequently used in areas where widespread illumination is required, such as along interstates and at major highway interchanges.  The structures' heights are large relative to their cross-sectional dimensions, and, consequently, they are flexible and sensitive to wind loading.  A number of failures of high-mast structures have occurred due to fatigue cracking.  These failures have been linked to buffering and vortex shedding loads.  The primary study objective is to characterize the dynamic effects of wind-induced vibrations on high-mast structures in Laramie, Wyoming, and to propose several retrofits that increase the aerodynamic dampening, thereby reducing vibrations. 

Derivative and matching reports:

  • J. Puckett, R. Johnson, M. Barker.  Study of the Effects of Wind Power and Vortex-Induced Vibrations to Establish Fatigue Design Criteria for High-Mast Poles, Mountain Plains Consortium, August 2011.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

 GRAVEL ROADS MANAGEMENT 

George Huntington
Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E.,  orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
University of Wyoming
 WY 10/03F (RS06209)
(ROSAP 23971)

 VOLUME 1
 VOLUME 2:  IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE
 VOLUME 3:  PROGRAMMING GUIDE

Gravel Road Management

Abstract:  This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives first to guide and assist smaller agencies by implementing asset and pavement management principles, and second, to encourage and facilitate the development of gravel road management software. The overall effort required to implement a gravel road management system (GRMS) for local agencies must be minimal. Data collection efforts must be limited and the analysis must be simple and transparent. The four basic steps are assessment; inventory; cost and maintenance history; and condition monitoring.

This report is divided into three volumes. Volume 1 outlines the background, problem statement, objectives, report organization, analytical methods, and summary and conclusions. Volume 2: Implementation Guide is designed to assist local road and street departments with the implementation or improvement of a gravel road management system. It is written primarily for road managers tasked with acquiring the necessary information to develop an information systems process. Volume 3: Programming Guide is intended to assist programmers and database managers with programming the information needed to implement a gravel road management system.

Derivative and matching reports:

  • G. Huntington, K. Ksaibati. LTAP Gravel Road Management, Wyoming Technology Transfer Center, September 20, 2010.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

VARIABLE SPEED LIMIT SYSTEM FOR ELK MOUNTAIN CORRIDOR

Jenna Buddemeyer
Rhonda Young, orcid.org/0000-0001-6745-5008
Vijay Sabawat
Emily Layton
University of Wyoming
WY 10/04F; RS05207
(ROSAP 23969)

Variable Speed Limit System for Elk Mountain Corridor

Abstract:  Determining an appropriate speed for the current conditions can be difficult for the driver. Equally difficult is for law enforcement agencies to enforce and cite someone going too fast for conditions. In many cases, drivers are cited for going too fast for conditions only after the accident has occurred. Variable speed limits (VSL) are one type of intelligent transportation system (ITS) that has shown promise for improving safety on roadways subject to adverse conditions. The purpose of this research was to lay the foundation for the new I-80 VSL system in southeastern Wyoming. During this phase of the research, surveys were sent out to all DOTs to see what VSLs have been implemented in the United States driver speed behaviors during both “ideal” and “non-ideal” conditions were found and baseline speeds determined. Weather and speed data were analyzed to determine key variables and threshold values. To check how cars and trucks are reacting to the VSL system individual speed analysis was done. A draft version of the control strategy was designed and a simulation was run to check for the level of speed compliance. The final task was to determine how drivers are reacting to the new VSL system.

Derivative and matching reports:

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

HIGH WIND WARNING SYSTEM FOR BORDEAUX, WYOMING

Rhonda Young, orcid.org/0000-0001-6745-5008
Edward Offei
Quiyue Dai
University of Wyoming
WY 10/05F; RS06207
(ROSAP 23965)

ITS System to Reduce High Wind Truck Crashes

Abstract:  The state of Wyoming has frequent severe wind conditions, particularly in the southeast corner of the state along Interstate 80 and Interstate 25. The high winds are problematic in many ways including, interfering with the performance of the transportation system, blowing vehicles off the road, or even overturning high profile trucks, which can cause economic losses and safety concerns for road users. The primary objectives of this research involve two parts: First, develop a statistical model that reveals the correlation between the likelihood of overturning trucks and weather conditions. Second, use the result of the statistical model to develop a data-driven operation plan for Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) to use in the winter season at a hazardous high wind corridor to improve truck safety.

Derivative and matching reports:

  • Utilizing ITS to Reduce Truck Overturn Crashes Due to High Winds at Bordeaux, Wyoming PowerPoint
  • R. Tabler.  Improving the Wyoming Road Weather Information System. WY-9802. July 1998.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

UTILIZING AUTOMATED DATA COLLECTION VEHICLES IN DETERMINING THE FORE SLOPES OF SHOULDERS

Burton Andreen
Cody Kalivoda
Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E.,  orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
University of Wyoming
WY 10/06F; RS07210
(ROSAP 23966)

Road Profiler Measurements in Fore Slopes of Shoulders

Abstract:  The Wyoming DOT has an interest in collecting automated data on pavement shoulders. Such data would include shoulder width, type, as well as slope. Pathway Services Inc. has been collecting Pavement Management Systems (PMS) data on roadways in Wyoming, and indicated they had the ability to measure the transverse profile of 10 to 20 feet from the white strip shoulder marking. Pathway Services has offered to provide measurements on test sections in Wyoming since they had not collected such data for any other states, so it was important to them to determine the limitations or potential of the system.  The test sections included seventy miles of Wyoming highways with shoulder widths varying from zero to ten feet in two-foot increments. Vegetation observations were made by researchers from the Wyoming T2-LTAP Center on the same day when Pathway’s data was collected to ensure identical conditions. It was found that the section with no shoulder had the most vegetation and the most varied slope measurements. It was concluded that vegetation does affect the accuracy of the sensor and that the sensor could not read past the pavement taper. In addition, the manually collected slope measurements and the automated slope measurements were statistically different in most of the sections included in the experiment.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

BRIDGE DECK EVALUATION USING NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST METHODS

Tyler Robison
Jennifer Tanner, orcid.org/0000-0002-8279-6289
University of Wyoming
WY 10/07F (RS04209)

Bridge Deck Evaluation Using Non-Destructive Test Methods

Abstract:  The state of Wyoming has 13.1 million square feet of road bridges, and evaluations have become an important part of the Wyoming Department of Transportation’s (WYDOT) management of bridge repairs. Nondestructive testing (NDE) methods developed in the past 20 years may provide an efficient, standardized, and accurate method for evaluating bridge deck conditions. This report presents the results of an exploratory study performed on three bridge decks in Wyoming: the First Street Bridge in Casper, the Douglas I-25 Bridge, and the Remount Bridge on I-80. The goal is to develop a practical solution that WYDOT can implement. In particular, the solution should capitalize on safety, efficiency, and accuracy. The author evaluated each bridge using standard WYDOT practices for chain dragging and half-cell potentials, along with newer technologies of impact echo, thermal imaging, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), which provides a comprehensive assessment of the NDE evaluation techniques. Cores removed from the bridges were compared to the results from the evaluation methods. Damage locations indicated by impact echo, thermal imaging, and GPR generally correlated well and factors are presented in this report. This research suggests that a combination of impact echo with GPR testing provides the most accurate predictions of delamination, debonding, and active corrosion on bridge decks.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

 

Completed Projects for FY2011 (Oct. 1, 2010 to Sept. 30, 2011)

EVALUATION OF MULE DEER CROSSING STRUCTURES IN NUGGET CANYON, WYOMING 

Hall Sawyer orcid.org/0000-0002-3789-7558
Chad LeBeau
Western EcoSystems Technology
WY 11/02F (RS01209)
ROSAP 23963

 Mule Deer Crossing Structures in Nugget Canyon

Abstract:  Wildlife-vehicle collisions pose a major safety concern to motorists and can be a significant source of mortality for wildlife. A 13-mile section of Highway 30 in southwest Wyoming has been especially problematic with an average of 130 mule deer killed each year.  WYDOT installed at total of seven underpasses along this area. Through 3 years of monitoring the study documented 49,146 mule deer moving through the underpasses. Overall, the construction of seven underpasses and game-proof fencing reduced deer-vehicle collisions by 81 percent. The results suggest that underpasses, combined with game-proof fencing, can provide safe and effective movement corridors for mule deer and other wildlife species while improving highway safety for motorists.

Derivative and matching reports:

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

PERFORMANCE OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT ON UNPAVED ROADS

Scott Koch
George Huntington
Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E.,  orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
University of Wyoming
WY 11/03F (RS07207)
ROSAP 23962

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement

Abstract:  The University of Wyoming LTAP Center conducted a study examining the performance of reclaimed, recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) on unpaved roads in three Wyoming counties.  Fifteen material and dust suppression treatment combinations were examined.  Materials included three RAP sources from Wyoming interstate millings and one milled cement-treated base (CTB) from Interstate 80.  Dust suppressants included calcium chloride flakes, magnesium chloride brine, and brines made from blends of magnesium chloride with either lignin sulfonate or a proprietary polymer. 

Derivative and matching reports:

  • S. Koch, K. Ksaibati.  Performance of Recycled Asphalt Pavement in Gravel Roads. Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming.  Mountain Plains Consortium.  October 2010.
  • S. Koch, G. Huntington, K. Ksaibati.  Performance of Recycled Asphalt Pavement On Unpaved Roads. Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming.  May 2013.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

 

Completed Projects for FY2012 (Oct. 1, 2011 to Sept. 30, 2012)

EVALUATING DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION'S RESEARCH PROGRAMS:  A METHODOLOGY AND CASE STUDY

Justin Terfehr
Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E.,  orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
University of Wyoming
WY 12/02F (RS03211)
ROSAP 27345

Evaluating Department of Transportation's Research Programs

Abstract:  An effective research program within a transportation organization can be a valuable asset to accomplish the goals of the overall mission. Determining whether a research program is pursuing relevant research projects and obtaining results for the sponsoring organization has been a challenge in the past. This report will present a methodology for conducting an evaluation of a research program within a transportation agency. The methodology provides 10 performance measures that are used to summarize the findings of the evaluation. These performance measures are quantifiable, meaning they are designed to place a score or value on the accomplishments of the research program which can then be used to make managerial decisions for the research program. The developed methodology was implemented for the Wyoming Department of Transportation’s Research Program to demonstrate how the methodology can be utilized. Specific recommendations and conclusions for the WYDOT Research Program are presented in the final chapter of this report. Final recommendations for implementing the methodology for any other agency looking to perform an evaluation of their research program are also presented in the final chapter of this report.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

COMPARING CRASH TRENDS AND SEVERITY IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY  MOUNTAIN REGION

Burt Andreen
Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E.,  orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
University of Wyoming
 WY 12/03F (RS08210)
ROSAP 27347

Crash Trends and Severity in North Rocky Mtn Region

Abstract:  Safety management systems are federally mandated in an effort to encourage states to develop strategic programs in order to mitigate severe crashes. In 2006, the Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) published the Wyoming Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP). The plan outlined goals for the state and transportation areas of strategic emphasis. While the SHSP has proven successful in lowering crash rates, Wyoming is constantly plagued by one of the highest fatal crash rates in the region. The basis of this research centers on evaluating key differences between North Dakota and Wyoming to determine if there are policies, practices, and or physical differences that keep North Dakota’s fatal crash rate lower. This research investigates patrol enforcement differences, traffic safety laws, crash records, mileage records, vehicle records, and economic factors as possible sources of crash rate differences.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

 

Completed Projects for FY2013 (Oct. 1, 2012 to Sept. 30, 2013)

CRITERIA FOR WYDOT CULVERT SELECTION POLICY

Dane Hopkin
Ryan Kobbe
John P. Turner
University of Wyoming
WY 13/01F (RS10211)
(ROSAP 27347)

Criteria for WYDOT Culvert Selection Policy

Abstract:  This report discusses geotechnical and material considerations for culvert design and selection. The purpose of this report is to present the Wyoming Department of Transportation with information in order to alter, improve, and incorporate changes to their standard road and bridge specifications. The research included in this study synthesizes AASHTO, ASTM, State DOT, and NCHRP literature among other technical documentation, as well as State DOT surveys that outline important considerations for culvert design. Additional areas of research discussed in this report include post-installation inspection of pipe culverts and LRFD culvert design procedures. The report concludes with recommendations for changes to WYDOT’s specifications related to selection, design, installation, and inspection of culverts.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

UPDATE TO A GUIDE TO STANDARDIZED HIGHWAY LIGHTING POLE HARDWARE

Malcolm H. Ray
Chuck A. Plaxico
Roadsafe, LLC
WY 13/02F
(TPF-5(002)
(ROSAP 27358)

Guide to Standardized Highway Lighting Pole Hardware

Abstract:  This report describes the development of an updated Online Guide to Luminaire Supports. The Guide is a web-based content management system for luminaire support systems that allows full viewing, submission, management, and reporting services to its users (e.g., State DOT personnel, construction contractors, etc.). The Online Guide to Luminaire Supports is one of six online guides maintained by the AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA Joint Committee on New Highway Materials Task Force 13 (TF13). The homepage for the Online Guides can be found online at http://guides.roadsafellc.com/.  The luminaire support systems included in the Online Guide to Luminaire Supports have been successfully crash tested according to NCHRP Report 350 or the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) and comply with the AASHTO Standard Specification for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires and Traffic Signals. A link to the appropriate FHWA eligibility letter, is included in the index listing for each system.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

VARIABLE SPEED LIMIT:   PHASE 2

Rhonda Young, orcid.org/0000-0001-6745-5008
Vijay Sabawat
Promothes Saha
Yanfei Sui
University of Wyoming
WY 13/03F (RS04210)
(ROSAP 29333)

Variable Speed Limit:  Phase 2

Abstract:  The Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) installed its first variable speed limit (VSL) corridor along Interstate 80, in the Elk Mountain Corridor, in the Spring of 2009, in an effort to improve safety and reduce road closures, particularly during winter storm events. Since that time, four additional variable speed limit corridors have been implemented; three additional corridors along with segments of Interstate 80 and one on WY 28, a rural two-lane highway through the area of South Pass. There were three main objectives to this research effort: develop a control strategy for the operation of VSL corridors, analyze the safety effects of the VSL system, and determine the impacts of the VSL on driver speed behavior. For the development of a control strategy, both weather and speed variables were considered. Initially, a simple linear regression approach was considered but the complexity of the weather and speed behavior led to a regression tree-based control strategy with a self-learning feedback loop using machine learning. For the safety task, descriptive baseline safety was analyzed for all five corridors. Since the Elk Mountain Corridor is the only VSL system in operation for more than two winter seasons, it was used for an Empirical Bayes (EB) before and after analysis, which indicated some statistically significant changes in crash frequency for just a few of the corridor segments. A weather-based safety analysis was performed on the four interstate VSL corridors and results from this analysis indicate a statistically significant reduction in crashes after the VSLs were implemented. Analyses of speed variables indicate a reduction in speed variation with the implementation of the VSL system. Modeling of the difference between observed and posted speeds show a reduction in speed compliance related to large reductions in posted speed limits.

Data:  Data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

EVALUATION OF ASR POTENTIAL IN WYOMING AGGREGATES

Ryan Fertig
Angela Jones
Margaret Kimble
Darby Hacker
Saadet Toker
Jennifer Eisenhauer Tanner, orcid.org/0000-0002-8279-6289
University of Wyoming
WY 13/04F (RS06212)
(ROSAP 27318)

Evaluation of ASR Potential in Wyoming Aggregates

Abstract:  A comprehensive study was performed to evaluate the ASR reactivity of eight Wyoming aggregates.  State-of-the-art and standardized test methods were performed and results were used to classify these aggregate sources. Of the eight aggregates: four are reactive; two are moderately reactive, and two are nonreactive. The Concrete Prism Test (CPT) and large scale field blocks provided the most accurate data.

Derivative and matching reports:

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

STATEWIDE MESOSCOPIC TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR WYOMING

Stephen Boyles, orcid.org/0000-0001-9734-2311
Center for Transportation Research
The University of Texas at Austin
and
University of Wyoming
WY-1305F RS06210
ROSAP 27319

Mesoscopic Traffic Simulation

Abstract:  This study developed a mesoscopic simulator, which is capable of representing both city-level and statewide roadway networks. The key feature of such models is the integration of (i) a traffic flow model which is efficient enough to scale to large regions, while realistic enough to represent traffic dynamics, including queue growth and dissipation and intersection control; and (ii) a user behavior model in which drivers choose routes based on minimizing travel times. Integrating these models is nontrivial because route choices depend on route travel times, but route travel times are determined from route choices through the traffic flow model. An iterative approach is used to seek a consistent solution to this problem, using the cell transmission model as the traffic flow model.

These features have been implemented in a software program, for which source code and tutorials have been provided as appendices to this report. Additional modules are provided for generating graphical views of networks, performing warrant analysis based on MUTCD procedures (either to assist with network creation, or as a post-processing step), and a spreadsheet interface to the program itself. Ready-to-use networks have been provided representing the city of Casper and the State of Wyoming.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

MANAGING RISK IN THE PROJECT PIPELINE: MINIMIZING THE IMPACTS OF HIGHWAY FUNDING UNCERTAINTIES

Larry Redd
Kim Redd
Redd Engineering
WY 13/06F (RS02212)
ROSAP (27320)

Managing Risks in the Project Pipeline

 

Abstract:  This research focuses on how to manage the risks of project costs and revenue uncertainties over the long-term, and identifies significant process improvements to ensure projects are delivered on time and as intended, thus maximizing the miles paved and minimizing financial risks to the organization. A dynamic simulation model is validated and tested by researching 50 historical projects, collecting data about these projects, and validating the key inputs for the simulation. A variety of parametric studies, including simulating the effects of various revenue scenarios, are performed and conclusive results are reached. Both Core Strategies, focusing on how to load and manage the project pipeline, and system and organizational improvement strategies are identified. By implementing these strategies and minimizing the number of projects held “on the shelf” and employing practices that minimize the risks of incurring holding costs due to revenue shortfalls, savings can be maximized. Applying new strategies and improving processes will allow the department to better manage the risks facing transportation projects in the project pipeline. Estimated cost savings are between 2 and 4 percent of the total budget; this would amount to a total savings of 90 million dollars, for a budget of 3 billion dollars over a 10-year period. The results of the research are enabling WYDOT to maximize the performance benefits from their asset management efforts.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

INDIAN RESERVATION SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM:  A METHODOLOGY AND CASE STUDY

Debbie S. Shinstine
Khaled Ksaibati, orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
University of Wyoming
WY 13/07F (RS09211)
ROSAP (27321)

Roadway Safety Improvement Program Indian Reservation

Abstract:  The need to reduce fatal and injury crashes on Tribal lands has been recognized for years. The United States has realized a decline in fatal crashes over the past several years but fatal crashes continue to increase on Tribal lands. Little progress has been made in improving safety on Tribal lands. Limited resources and lack of coordination across jurisdictions have made it difficult for Native American communities to address their roadway safety concerns. The rural nature of many of their roadways and lack of crash data has also made it difficult for Tribes to implement an effective safety improvement program. A methodology that is able to address these challenges is presented in this report to assist Tribes in reducing fatal and injury crashes. The proposed methodology has been implemented successfully in the Wind River Indian Reservation. Key to the success of such a process is a collaboration among safety stakeholders, namely the State departments of transportation, Tribal leadership, Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP), Tribal Technical Assistance Program (TTAP), Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and local and Tribal law enforcement.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.

MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HERMIONUS) MOVEMENT AND HABITAT USE PATTERNS IN RELATION TO ROADWAYS IN NORTHWEST WYOMING

Corinna Riginos, orcid.org/0000-0001-9082-5206
Kevin Krasnow
Embere Hall
Morgan Graham, orcid.org/ 0000-0003-3420-0513
Siva Sundaresan
Doug Brimeyer
Gary Fralick
Doug Wachob
Conservation Research Center, Teton Science School
WY 13/08F (RS03210)
ROSAP 34266

Understanding Mule Deer Movement

Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to provide the Wyoming Department of Transportation and Wyoming Game and Fish Department with useful information about the patterns of mule deer seasonal habitat use, migration, road crossings, and wildlife-vehicle collisions in the Jackson Hole area. We captured 40 mule deer and fitted them with a global positioning system (GPS) collars that collected locations every 2 hours for up to 2 years. We identified areas of high seasonal (summer and winter) use by mule deer as well as migration routes between these seasonal ranges. Results show that mule deer use the developed valley of Jackson Hole intensively in the winter months and during migrations. Results of a resource selection function analysis on winter habitat use indicate that deer most intensively use areas close to supplemental feed sites, hill slopes, and areas with high cover of herbaceous vegetation, golf courses, mixed trees, junipers, and riparian vegetation. We further identified 1,796 locations where deer crossed major roadways. Road crossings almost all occurred during winter (rather than summer or migration times) and were concentrated in a few locations. Road crossings were negatively associated with roadside fencing and positively associated with proximity to preferred winter habitat. Finally, we analyzed patterns of deer-vehicle collisions in Jackson Hole. Collisions primarily occurred in winter and were concentrated on US-89/191, particularly on the highest traffic volume stretches near the town of Jackson. These results suggest that any measures designed to reduce the frequency of deer-vehicle collisions will have to allow deer to cross major roadways frequently as they move around their winter home ranges. Crossing structures, which are effective for allowing migrating ungulates to cross roadways, may not be effective for facilitating the frequent crossings of non-migrating animals in a highly developed landscape.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

 

Completed Projects for FY2014 (Oct. 1, 2013 to Sept. 30, 2014)

EVALUATING BASE WIDENING METHODS

Edward Offei
Rhonda Young, orcid.org/0000-0001-6745-5008
Khaled Ksaibati, orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
Dick Apronti
University of Wyoming
FHWA 1402F RS08211
ROSAP (29332)

Base Widening Methods

Abstract:  The surface transportation system forms the biggest infrastructure investment in the United States of which the roadway pavement forms an integral part. Maintaining the roadways can involve rehabilitation in the form of widening; which requires a longitudinal joint between the existing and new pavement sections to accommodate the wider travel lanes, additional travel lanes or modification to shoulder widths. Several methods are utilized for the joint construction between the existing and new pavement sections; vertical, tapered and stepped joints. The main purpose of this research is to develop a formal recommendation as to the preferred joint construction method that provides better pavement support in the State of Wyoming. Field data collection of Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP), Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD), base samples for gradation, and moisture content were conducted on 28 existing and 4 newly constructed widening projects. Survey of practices and preferences of other states and constructability issues were undertaken. Costs of each joint type were compared as well.

Results of the analysis indicate that the tapered joint technique showed relatively better pavement strength compared to the vertical joint type, and could be the preferred joint construction method. The vertical joint has an 18% increase in cost compared to the tapered joint. This research is intended to provide information and/or recommendation to state policymakers as to which of the base widening joint techniques (vertical, tapered, stepped) for flexible pavement provides better pavement performance.

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

IMPROVING TRAVELER INFORMATION ON RURAL CORRIDORS IN WYOMING THROUGH THE USE OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

Rhonda Young, orcid.org/0000-0001-6745-5008
Eric Milliken
Edward Offei
University of Wyoming
FHWA1403F RS07211
ROSAP 28951

Rural Travel Times

Abstract:  Using intelligent transportation systems to help report traveling conditions has been reserved for urban areas. The goal of this research was to help develop a new methodology for incorporating travel times calculated from the intelligent transportation system (ITS) technology into Wyoming’s road and weather condition reporting system. Bluetooth sensors and speed sensors were used to measure travel times on I-80 between Cheyenne and Laramie, as well as WY-28 between Farson and Lander in Wyoming. From previous research, the distribution of travel times on I-80 show two distinct modes. Travel times from the WY-28 corridor were then calculated to determine if this trend was common with other rural highways. The next step in this research was to determine the best way to measure travel times on a rural corridor.

Bluetooth sensor travel time data was compared to speed sensor travel time data. Then a travel time index was created for I-80 from one year of speed sensor data. This travel time index was then modeled with weather variables downloaded from road weather information system (RWIS) stations. Finally, a methodology for implementing and evaluating this new travel time reporting procedure was developed. The results of this research will help to improve the current condition reporting system by incorporating both physical conditions (slick in spots, high wind speed, etc.) with travel times. This will help all types of travelers to more accurately quantify the severity of traveling conditions.  

Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report. The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

 

Completed Projects for FY2015 (Oct. 1, 2014 to Sept. 30, 2015)

INVESTIGATION OF APPROACH SLAB AND ITS SETTLEMENT FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES

Kam Weng Ng, orcid.org/0000-0001-5099-5454
Seyed Yashar Yasrobi
Thomas V. Edgar
University of Wyoming
WY-1501F RS05213
(ROSAP 28953)

Approach Slab

Abstract:  Approach slabs serve as a transitional system between an approach road and a bridge. Settlement of bridge approach slabs and their supporting backfill has been experienced by more than ten Departments of Transportation throughout the United States. According to the current Wyoming Department of Transportation inspection reports, bridge approach slab settlements occurred not only on existing bridges but also on newly built bridges that were just opened to traffic. These settlements typically create voids ranging from 6-in to 12-in between the base of the approach slab and the geotextile reinforced backfill. This research presents factors causing bridge approach slab settlements and provides necessary design and construction recommendations. A comprehensive literature review pertaining to approach slabs was performed to examine outcomes of research conducted by 12 states. The current specifications and standards on bridge approach slabs of the corresponding states’ Departments of Transportation were also evaluated. A nationwide survey was conducted to fill in the missing knowledge identified in the literature review. The results of the survey are categorized in three groups based on the percentage of bridges experiencing approach slab settlements in that state. Results of the survey show that 46 percent of the total 28 respondents are not satisfied with their current approach slab designs. The survey results revealed that the most common cause of approach slab settlement is poor construction practices. The most important finding of the survey is that performing in-situ tests to control backfill compaction reduces the amount of approach slab settlement. Using the lessons learned from the literature and the results of the survey, potential amendments to the current Wyoming Department of Transportation design and construction manuals are recommended.

Derivative and matching reports: 

Data and Data Management Plan.  The types of data and/or datasets generated and/or used in this project include National survey results data of 22 questionnaires from 28 valid responses or state DOTs.  All survey results were summarized in a format developed by the commercial online software SurveyMonkey®. They were compiled and save in a CD given to the Wyoming Department of Transportation.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data. 

DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE SHOULDER AND CENTERLINE RUMBLE STRIPS/STRIPES POLICY TO ACCOMMODATE ALL ROADWAY USERS

Mohamed Ahmed, orcid.org/0000-0002-1921-0724
Mirza Sharif
Khaled Ksaibati, orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
University of Wyoming
WY-15/02F RS02214
(ROSAP 29526)

Effective Shoulder and Centerline Rumble Strips

Abstract:  Lane departure crashes including single-vehicle-run-off-road crashes, opposite direction sideswipe, and head-on crashes are considered the most severe crashes and often dominated by sleep deprivation/fatigue, and distracted driving. According to the Federal Highway Administration, 53 percent of annual fatal crashes are attributed to lane and road departures. In Wyoming, lane departure crashes comprised 72 percent of all sever crashes for the years 2008 – 2010. While lane-departure crashes are mostly driven by drivers‘ errors, reduction of the frequency and severity can be achieved by more forgiving roadside and specific countermeasures. Rumble strips/stripes are used by many states as a relatively low cost proven safety countermeasure to reduce or prevent lane departure crashes through providing a vibrotactile and audible warning to inattentive motorists. Although the advantages of rumble strips were generally found to outweigh the disadvantages, several issues and concerns have been identified regarding the implementation of rumble strips; noise, maintenance, and the adverse effects on bicyclists and motorcyclists are among the most recognized concerns.

This study demonstrated that despite the fact that rumble strips have been used for many years, there are no standardized practices used in the U.S. A significant number of states are still working on updating their rumble strips policies; their main goal is to enhance motor vehicle safety while accommodating all road users to the highest practical extent. The information provided in this report and the companion Expert System that was developed as part of this study may provide the necessary background for WYDOT and other transportation agencies when it comes to updating or developing an effective all road users‘ friendly rumble strips policy.

Derivative and matching reports: 

Data and Data Management Plan:  Subjects participated by filling in online surveys about their stated preference related to rumble strips. No identifiable personal information was collected. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Wyoming approved the data collection methodology, and data management and storage plan. The data have no long-term value. The data are stored online using a secure survey tool (Survey Monkey). The data were processed and final conclusions were made using charts, figures, and tables. The data will be stored online for 3 years after the project end date on April 30, 2015.  The University of Wyoming and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.  

EFFECTS OF WILDLIFE WARNING REFLECTORS (DEER DELINEATORS) ON WILDLIFE VEHICLE COLLISIONS IN CENTRAL WYOMING

Corinna Riginos, orcid.org/0000-0001-9082-5206
Morgan William Graham, orcid.org/0000-0003-3420-0513
Melanie Davis
Chauncey Smith
Andrew Johnson
Teton Research Institute, Teton Science Schools
WY-15/03F RS05212
(ROSAP 29527)

Effects of Wildlife Warning Reflectors

Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to provide the Wyoming Department of Transportation with information about (1) the effectiveness of Streiter-Lite wildlife warning reflectors that had been installed in three locations within Wyoming’s District 5, and (2) preliminary analysis of patterns of deer-vehicle collisions across Wyoming and the habitat and road variables associated with collision hotspots. The project evaluated reflector effectiveness in terms of their ability to reduce deer-vehicle collisions and modify deer road-crossing behavior. Using a series of experimental manipulations of reflectors, the Principle Investigators showed that reflectors reduced deer-vehicle collisions by 32 percent and significantly reduced the number of high-risk deer road crossings (those in which deer ran into the road as a car was approaching). However, covering reflectors with white canvas bags – initially done with the intent of creating a control treatment that neutralized the reflectors – proved even more effective than leaving the reflectors exposed. White bags on posts resulted in 33 percent fewer collisions than when reflectors were exposed and significantly reduced the number of high-risk deer road crossings. It is likely that the white bags are more visible or reflective to deer than the red wildlife warning reflectors. A cost-benefit analysis suggests that the benefits of reflectors outweigh their initial materials and installation costs, but may not outweigh the net costs once the maintenance is taken into account. Analysis of patterns of deer-vehicle collisions across the state showed that traffic volume, proximity to agricultural land, proximity to deer winter range and migration routes, and high-speed limits are all strongly associated with high collision rates. On average, areas with a 55 mph speed limit have 36 percent and 55 percent fewer deer-vehicle collisions than areas with speed limits of 65 and 75 mph, respectively. Reducing nighttime speed limits in high collision areas may be a cost-effective strategy for mitigating deer-vehicle collisions in Wyoming.

Derivative and matching reports:  Wildlife warning reflectors and white canvas reduce deer-vehicle collisions and risky behavior. In review. Wildlife Society Bulletin.

Data and Data Management Plan:  The types of data and/or datasets generated and/or used in this project include ArcGIS gedatabase and spreadsheet files.  All data have embedded metadata adhering to standards of the Federal Geographic Data Committee.  Data identifiers will be assigned upon upload to a public access website after the embargo period has ended.  Data collection protocols are documented fully in the project final report.  All data are reproducible.  Data will be made available on the widely used internet repository, Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity (KNB ).  Data can be found by searching on key terms such as "mule deer" and can be downloaded for use from that site.  Teton Science School, the Principle Investigators, and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.  

EVALUATING THE RISK OF ALKALI-SILICA REACTION IN WYOMING:  Continued Evaluation of Field Specimens and Proposed Mitigation Strategies

Margaret Kimble
Ryan Fertig
Darby Hacker
Jennifer Eisenhauer Tanner, orcid.org/0000-0002-8279-6289
University of Wyoming
WY-15/04F RS06212
(ROSAP39540)

Risk of alkali Silica reaction

Abstract:  A comprehensive study was performed to evaluate the ASR reactivity of eight Wyoming aggregates. State-of-the-art and standardized test methods were performed and results were used to classify these aggregate sources. Of the eight aggregates: one is highly reactive; one is moderately/highly reactive, three are moderately reactive; one is potentially reactive and two are nonreactive. The Concrete Prism Test (CPT) and unboosted large scale field blocks provided the most accurate data.

Data and Data Management Plan:  Data are presented in tables and graphs that are found in published documents.  Great care is taken to provide accurate tables in appendices at the end of each final report.  This permits outside users to compare our data with their own.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

MULTI-MEASURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND BENCHMARKING OF THE DIVISIONS OF THE WYOMING HIGHWAY PATROL
 
Mehmet E. Ozbek, Ph.D, orcid.org/0000-0002-1921-0724
Maral Jalili
Duygu Akalp
Colorado State University
WY-15/05F RS08212
(ROSAP 34367)
 
Multi performance measures of Wyoming Highway Patrol
 
Abstract:  With many lives lost every year in traffic-related crashes, traffic safety is a major concern all around the world. One way to improve traffic safety is to improve the organizational performance of agencies responsible for enforcing traffic safety. Internal benchmarking would be the first step to accomplish that goal, in order to compare the units of an organization, identify the best performing ones, and learn from their best practices so that other units within the organization can take advantage and improve their performance as well. Wyoming Highway Patrol (WHP) is a data-driven organization, which uses multiple measures to assess its performance. These measures can be used by WHP to perform comparisons between its 17 divisions. However, this process involves the utilization of a single performance measure at a time and may result in difficulties in identifying the overall performance. Therefore, there is a need to develop a performance assessment framework that can identify the overall performance of these divisions in the presence of multiple measures. This research presents a performance assessment system developed for WHP using Data Envelopment Analysis. This system can incorporate multiple measures, enabling WHP to identify its best-performing divisions to be able to use those as benchmarks.

Derivative and matching reports:

  • Jalili, M., Ozbek, M.E., McCarthy, J.G. and Rabbani, E. (2015). Effective Performance Measures for Highway Patrol Agencies to Change Poor Driver Behaviors. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, AHFE 2015, 2450-2457, July 26-30, Las Vegas, NV.

Data and Data Management Plan:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

 

Completed Projects for FY2016 (Oct. 1, 2015 to Sept. 30, 2016)

PRONGHORN AND MULE DEER USE OF UNDERPASSES AND OVERPASSES ALONG US HIGHWAY 191, WYOMING

Hall Sawyer orcid.org/0000-0002-3789-7558
Patrick Rodgers
Western Ecosystems Technology
WY-16/01F  RS11211
(ROSAP 34368)

Overpass and Underpass monitoring Trappers Point

Abstract: The seasonal migrations of ungulates are increasingly threatened by various forms of anthropogenic disturbance, including roads, fences, and other infrastructure. While roadway impacts (i.e., wildlife‐vehicle collisions and landscape permeability) of two‐lane highways to mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) can largely be mitigated with underpasses and continuous fencing, similar mitigation may not be effective for pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) or other ungulate species that are reluctant to move through confined areas. The Wyoming Department of Transportation recently installed 6 underpasses and 2 overpasses along 20 km of US Highway 191 in western Wyoming, where we evaluated species‐specific preferences by documenting the number of migratory mule deer and pronghorn that used adjacent overpass and underpasses for 3 years following construction. We also measured the amount of back and forth movement across the highway for each species through time. We documented 40,251 mule deer and 19,290 pronghorn migrate across the highway. Of those, 79 percent of mule deer moved under, whereas 93 percent of pronghorn moved over the highway. These strong species‐specific differences were evident at both sites and support the notion that overpasses are more amenable to pronghorn than underpasses. Concurrently, we documented a sharp increase in the amount of back and forth movement of mule deer and pronghorn across the highway during migration periods. Such movement flexibility is presumed to improve their ability to respond to changing environmental conditions by easily accessing habitats on either side of the highway. Our results highlight that species‐specific preferences are an important consideration when mitigating roadway impacts with wildlife crossing structures. Overpass and underpass construction reduced wildlife‐vehicle collisions by approximately 81 percent.

Derivative and matching reports:

  • Sawyer, H., P. Rodgers, and T. Hart. 2016. Pronghorn and mule deer use of underpasses and overpasses along US Highway 191. Wildlife Society Bulletin, In Press.

Data and Data Management Plan:  The types of data and/or datasets generated and/or used in this project include highway crossing data (date, time, crossing structure, number of animals, the direction of movement, and species), and photos.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data. 

IMPLEMENTATION AND LOCAL CALIBRATION OF THE MEPDG TRANSFER FUNCTIONS IN WYOMING

Biplab B. Bhattacharya, orcid.org/0000-0003-3003-9347
Harold L. Von Quintus  orcid.org/0000-0003-4030-6162
Michael I. Darter
Applied Research Associates
WY-16/02F  RS03209 
(ROSAP 29562)

Local Calibration of MEPDG

Abstract:  This report documents the local calibration of the transfer functions using LTPP and non-LTPP roadway segments. The calibration process follows the steps presented in the 2010 AASHTO MEPDG Local Calibration Guide. Local calibration coefficients were derived to remove that bias for the rutting, fatigue cracking, and thermal cracking transfer functions of flexible pavements, and the faulting and fatigue cracking transfer functions of rigid pavements. The global coefficients of the smoothness degradation regression equation for flexible and rigid pavements were also checked for their applicability to Wyoming conditions.

Derivative and matching reports:

  • K. Ng, D. Hellrung, K. Ksaibati, S. Wulff.  Systematic back-calculation protocol and prediction of resilient modulus for MEPDG.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10298436.2016.1162303.

Data and Data Management Plan:  The types of data and/or datasets generated and/or used in this project include two types of data were generated from the study; a) observed and predicted distresses, b) and material/layer properties in support of using the MEPDG to accurately predict the measured distresses.  The observed and predicted distresses and pavement performance indicators were measured at the defined times included in the LTPP database, and are summarized in excel spreadsheets for the calibration test sections in Wyoming.  Other data sets include material or layer properties, climate, and traffic.  These data represent inputs to the MEPDG software – Pavement ME Design, version 2.2.4.  These data or layer properties are included in the MEPDG input files which were provided to WYDOT.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF REGULATOR HEADLIGHT SIGNS IN WYOMING - PHASE 1

Mohamed M. Ahmed, Ph.D., P.E. - orcid.org/0000-0002-1921-0724
Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E. - orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
Sherif Gaweesh, M.S. - orcid.org/0000-0001-7977-6378
Md. Hamidur Rahman - orcid.org/0000-0002-8002-2925
Ali Ghasemzadeh, M.S. - orcid.org/0000-0003-1232-251X
Anemone Kasasbeh - orcid.org/0000-0002-1379-7499
WY-1603F  RS05214
(ROSAP 34365)

 
Regulatory Headlight Signs
 
Abstract:  Although Daytime Running Lights (DRLs) may have a significant impact on increasing vehicle conspicuity during different times of the day, their effect on overall safety is still up for debate. A recent study by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) showed that DRLs offer no statistically significant reduction in the frequency or severity of crashes analyzed. There are functional issues with using automatic DRLs only: drivers with automatic DRLs often do not turn on their low-beam headlights in adverse weather conditions and at dusk or dawn. This is especially dangerous because the taillights do not come on until the low-beam headlights are turned on manually. This becomes more important at hazardous roadway sections that require both headlights and taillights.
 
This project investigated the impact of the compliance rate, and the density of the DRL technology on the safety benefits of regulatory headlight signs on mountainous and non-mountainous rural two-lane highways. The safety effectiveness of headlight signs was examined based on DRLs-equipped and non-DRL- equipped vehicles. Simple odds and the ratio of odds ratios were utilized to adjust for a variety of exogenous factors. Four different scenarios were considered in analyzing crash data. A case-control method was used to compare crashes for a set of passenger vehicles equipped with DRLs and vehicles without DRLs on roadway sections with and without headlight signs. The low compliance rate to the mandatory headlight sign may result in misleading conclusions about the safety benefits of the regulatory headlight signs. A careful analysis should be carried out to quantify the actual benefits. Development of social media campaigns might be necessary to raise public awareness about the importance of complying with the mandatory headlight use signs.

Data and the Data Management Plan:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

WYOMING LOW-VOLUME ROADS TRAFFIC VOLUME ESTIMATION

Dick T. Apronti, orcid.org/0000-0002-2072-2030; 
Jaime J. Herpner, orcid.org/0000-0002-3677-7386; 
Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E., orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
WY-1604F RS06213
(ROSAP 34366)

Low Volume Roads

Abstract:  Low-volume roads are excluded from regular traffic counts except on a need to know basis. But needs for traffic volume data on low-volume roads in road infrastructure management, safety, and air quality analysis have necessitated regular traffic volume estimates. This study developed traffic volume estimation models for low-volume roads in Wyoming. A review of existing estimation models was carried out. Two main model types were identified - regression models and Travel Demand Models (TDMs). The study developed the two model types and recommended the best model for implementation. Two regression models were developed, a linear and a logistic regression model. Each of the regression models was developed using data from 13 randomly selected counties and nine counties were used in model validation. The linear regression model had an R2 of 64 percent and was verified to be a good predictor of traffic volumes across Wyoming. The logistic regression model validation indicated a prediction accuracy ranging from 78 to 89 percent. The TDM was developed using standard factors and trip rates in the NCHRP Report 365. The TDM was implemented for four southeastern counties in Wyoming. The model was then validated and calibrated by comparing actual traffic volumes to those generated by the model. The calibrated model had a Percentage Root Mean Square Error and an R2 value of 50 and 74 percent respectively. The report compared the three models with respect to cost-effectiveness, ease of use, and accuracy and recommended the TDM for implementation. The regression models were recommended for applications requiring quick traffic volume estimations and for which lower levels of accuracy are acceptable.
 
Derivative and matching reports:
Data and the Data Management Plan:  The types of data and/or datasets generated and/or used in this project include gathering traffic count data on rural local roads from 2012 to 2014. The data were collected with pneumatic tubes and summarized in excel files for 22 of the 23 counties in Wyoming. The data obtained from Sublette County was found to be incomplete and so was excluded from the study. The summarized data included information on the road name, the county where the road is located, and the traffic volume recorded on the road. Additional data obtained include census demographic and economic data. The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES SUBJECT TO OVERWEIGHT TRUCKS PHASE I – INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION

Richard J. Schmidt  orcid.org/0000-0003-1672-2625
WY-1606F RS03212
(ROSAP 31259)
 
Structural Health Monitoring Phase I
 
Abstract:  The long-term objectives of this project were to develop and validate an instrumentation package for structural health monitoring of bridges subjected to overweight trucks and to develop plans for field deployment of the instrumentation on a pilot scale. Ultimately, the objective is to accurately correlate long-term field performance data to the behavior of the bridges predicted by analysis and rating software.
 
In Phase I of the project, instrumentation, packaging, installation techniques and data collection and storage for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were being developed in the laboratory. The essential elements of the structural health monitoring (SHM) system are in place and include (a) sensor installation and protection techniques for both concrete and steel host structures, (b) commercial and special-purpose instrumentation for interrogating the SHM network, and (c) a triggering system based in RFID technology to control the amount of data that is collected by the SHM network.
 
Subsequent deployment of the system on a bridge in the WYDOT inventory will require additional development of data storage and transmission capabilities, which will be particular to the location and characteristics of the targeted bridge. Researchers engaged in Phase II of this study must coordinate with bridge engineers at WYDOT to identify a spectrum of SHM applications and objectives, for which individual data analysis techniques can be developed. Subsequent design and implementation of software to execute such data analysis will be needed to relieve bridge engineers from the burdensome and tedious tasks of sifting through raw SHM data streams themselves.
 
Derivative and matching reports:  
Data and the Data Management Plan:  The types of data and/or datasets generated and/or used in this project include data from laboratory tests, finite element models and analysis results, and software related to microcontroller design and inter-device communications, and source code microcontrollers.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

INVESTIGATION OF SILICA FUME CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK OVERLAY FAILURES

Kim Basham, Ph.D, PE, FACI
WY-16/07F; RS04211
(ROSAP 31694)

Silica Fume Bridge Deck Overlay

Abstract:  Many of these microsilica-modified concrete or silica fume concrete (SFC) bridge deck overlays across the State of Wyoming are suffering from premature distress that includes random cracking, loss of bond, and delaminations. To determine the most likely cause of the premature overlay failures and to develop a mitigation scheme, this author with the assistance of Dr. David Rothstein, Ph.D., PG, FACI with DRP Consulting, Inc. (DRP) and Mr. Larry Mott, PE with GES Tech Group, Inc. (GES) undertook a multi-task research study.
 
Tasks consisted of measuring bond strengths of existing and new SFC overlays representing different surface preparation techniques and measuring both plastic and hardened properties including drying shrinkages for typical SFC overlay mixtures. DRP performed petrographic examinations of bond lines and failure zones of core samples. GES modeled the overlay and substrate and performed non-linear finite element analyses focusing on the cracking potential of the overlay and the bond-line stresses created by varying the strength and drying shrinkage of the overlay.
 
Results show bond strengths for most of the existing and new SFC overlays were insufficient. In general, bond strength failures occurred superficially in the concrete substrate and the petrographic examinations revealed cracks and microcracks located within the top ¼ inch of the substrate, most likely caused by an externally applied stress after initial bonding. The finite element analyses showed significant tensile stresses in the overlay material, shrinkage cracks and high bond-line stresses that occurred when the drying shrinkage of the SFC overlay exceeding about 0.03 percent. Results indicate the magnitude of the drying shrinkage of the existing SFC overlays was too large.
 
Using the 0.03 percent as the upper limit for the field shrinkage, maximum 28-day allowable shrinkages as determined by a standard laboratory procedure were computed using a concrete shrinkage model for different overlay thickness and relative humidities. By limiting the 28-day laboratory shrinkages, SFC overlay shrinkages should not exceed 0.03 percent; thereby, limiting the cracking potential of the overlay and maintaining acceptable bond line stresses.
 
Data and the Data Management Plan:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

SHRP 2 IMPLEMENTATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (IAP) - ROUND 4 CONCEPT TO COUNTERMEASURES - RESEARCH TO DEPLOYMENT USING THE SHRP2 SAFETY DATA

Mohamed M. Ahmed, Ph.D., P.E. orcid.org/0000-0002-1921-0724
Ali Ghasemzadeh, M.Sc. orcid.org/0000-0003-1232-251X
Hesham Eldeeb, Ph.D.
Sherif Gaweesh, M.Sc. orcid.org/0000-0001-7977-6378
Rhonda Young, P.E., Ph.D. orcid.org/0000-0001-6745-5008
Joshua Clapp, Ph.D.
WY - 16/08F; RS04215
(ROSAP 30814)

SHRP2 Safety Data

Abstract:  Inclement weather events such as fog, snow, ground blizzard, slush, rain, and strong wind affect roadways by impacting pavement conditions, vehicle performances, visibility, and drivers’ behavior. Road-user characteristics and behavior are among the most important elements influencing the driving task. The ability to see objects that are in motion relative to the eye (“dynamic visual acuity”) and the reaction process (e.g., speed choice, lane maintenance, car following, etc.) are of utmost importance for safe driving. Adverse weather conditions can result in a sudden reduction in visibility on roadways, which leads to an increased risk of crashes. The literature shows a variation of crash risk estimates; however, a general trend can be concluded that adverse weather and road conditions can easily elevate the risk of crashes. Drivers' performance and behavior are absent in safety modeling due to lack of driver data. The second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) has collected the most comprehensive Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS). The unique NDS data will enable researchers to better understand the role of driver performance and behavior under various highway research.

Data and the Data Management Plan:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

DEVELOPING DETERIORATION MODELS OF WYOMING BRIDGES

Minwoo Chang orcid.org/0000-0002-5749-078X
Marc Maguire  orcid.org/0000-0002-7897-0344
WY-16/09F; RS04214;
ROSAP 31036

Bridge Deterioration Models

Abstract:  Deterioration models for the Wyoming Bridge Inventory were developed using both stochastic and deterministic models. The selection of explanatory variables is investigated and a new method using LASSO regression to eliminate human bias in explanatory variable selection. The cross-validation technique is used to determine the minimum number of explanatory variables. The relative significance of candidate variables is used to rank the explanatory variables in hierarchical order.

The deterministic deterioration models are developed by using curve-fitting methods for the mean of bridge ages for each condition rating. In order to improve the accuracy in the model, bridges are split into multiple subsets using the first two explanatory variables for deck, superstructure, and substructure. Although the deterministic deterioration model is insufficient to predict condition ratings for a specific bridge, it is worthy to observe a general feature of how the functionality of bridges becomes worse over time.

The stochastic models are developed to capture the uncertainty in the deterioration process using the Markov chain. The transition probability matrix is estimated using a percentage prediction method, which counts the numbers corresponding to the element of the transition probability matrix. The same subsets used in the deterministic deterioration models are considered. For each subset, the zoning technique is used such that the bridge data is grouped for every 30 years to estimate the transition probability matrix separately.

The source codes are provided for the future update of bridge inventory and stochastic deterioration models. A computer program is used to develop and plot deterioration models. A simple guideline is also included so that the user can access the source codes conveniently.

Data and the Data Management Plan All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

PLANNING-SUPPORT FOR MITIGATION OF WILDLIFE-VEHICLE COLLISIONS AND HIGHWAY IMPACTS ON MIGRATION ROUTES IN WYOMING

Corinna Riginos  orcid.org/0000-0001-9082-5206
Holly Copeland orcid.org/0000-0001-8613-2650
Chauncey Smith orcid.org/0000-0001-8861-6763
Hall Sawyer orcid.org/0000-0002-3789-7558
Kevin Krasnow orcid.org/0000-0002-0887-2503
Thomas Hart orcid.org/0000-0002-3246-7049
WY-16/10F; RS03215
(ROSAP 34185)
 
Wildlife Vehicle collisions and migration routes
 
Wyoming is home to abundant big game, including long-distance migratory species such as mule deer, elk, and pronghorn. Where these animals’ movement patterns intersect with roads, vehicles often hit animals. This poses a threat both to highway safety and to wildlife populations. Here, we identified 27 deer-vehicle collision “hotspots” in the state. We then analyzed the ecological and road characteristics that are associated with these areas. High rates of deer-vehicle collision are most strongly associated with high traffic volumes, high-speed limits, deer migration habitat, deer winter-use areas, irrigated agriculture, and wetlands. We then examined the spatial and temporal patterns of collisions for each hotspot in relation to known deer migration routes and winter-use areas. Using these results, we suggest mitigation measures that are most suitable for each of the 27 collision hotspots.
 
Data and the Data Management Plan:  The types of data and/or datasets generated and/or used in this project include arcGIS geodatabase and Excel spreadsheet summaries.  Data collection protocols are documented fully in the project final report.  All data are reproducible.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

 

Completed Projects for FY2017 (Oct. 1, 2016 to Sept. 30, 2017)
 

CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF MECHANISTIC-EMPIRICAL PAVEMENT DESIGN IN WYOMING

Kam Weng Ng  orcid.org/0000-0001-5099-5454
Harold L. Von Quintus  orcid.org/0000-0003-4030-6162
Khaled Ksaibati  orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
Daniel Hellrung  orcid.org/0000-0003-3400-394X
Zachary Hutson  orcid.org/0000-0003-3913-9184
WY-1701F; RS04213
(ROSAP 31735)

MEPDG

Abstract:  The Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) recently transitioned from the empirical AASHTO Design for Design of Pavement Structures to the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) as their standard pavement design procedure. A comprehensive field and laboratory test program was conducted in Wyoming to characterize the properties of unbound soil materials. The field test program included falling weight deflectometer (FWD), dynamic cone penetration (DCP), standard penetration test (SPT), soil sampling and pavement distress survey. The laboratory test program included standard soil classification tests, R-value test, standard Proctor compaction test, and resilient modulus (Mr) test in accordance with a protocol by modifying the AASHTO T-307 procedure. All test data was stored and managed by an electronic WYOming MEPDG Database (WYOMEP). Using the FWD data, in-place resilient modulus (MR) of each pavement layer was back-calculated using MODCOMP6 and EVERCALC. For MEPDD Level 2 input, correlation studies were performed to adjust back-calculated modulus to laboratory-derived modulus, calibrate constitutive models, develop relationships between resilient modulus and other soil properties, and develop Mr design tables. Furthermore, tables of unbound soil properties were established for MEPDG Level 3 input. Finally, seven pavement designs were evaluated and compared to achieve the target threshold values and reliability level. The design comparisons and resulting outcomes or predicted distresses for a range of new pavement and rehabilitation designs were presented. The outcomes of these trial examples were used to provide revisions to the 2012 WYDOT MEPDG User Guide. 

Data and the Data Management Plan The types of data and/or datasets generated and/or used in this project include two types of data were generated from this study: (1) observed and predicted distresses, (2) and material/layer properties in support of using the MEPDG to accurately predict the measured distresses. The observed and predicted distresses and pavement performance indicators were measured at the defined times included in the LTPP database, and are summarized in excel spreadsheets for the calibration test sections in Wyoming..  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATIONS OF I-80 TRUCKLOADS AND THEIR LOAD EFFECTS

Michael Barker
Jay Pucket
FHWA-WY-1702F; RS03214
(ROSAP 32469)

RS03214 I-80 Truck Load Study.bmp

Abstract:  The research objective is to examine the safety of Wyoming bridges on the I-80 corridor considering the actual truck traffic on the interstate based upon weigh in motion (WIM) data. This was accomplished by performing statistical analyses to determine reliability indices for a set of archetype bridges. This set of bridges include simple-span bridges with lengths between 30 ft and 200 ft (positive moments) and two-span bridges with equal spans lengths of 30 ft to 200 ft (negative moments). Adequate safety, as defined by AASHTO Bridge Specifications, is a reliability index of at least 3.50. Wyoming DOT has several years of truck characteristics that were used to develop a live load model in a manner similar to the NCHRP used to calibrate the LRFD Specifications. The results are the live load bias values and coefficients of variations for the different bridge archetypes that are used to determine the 75-year maximum load statistical properties for the reliability analyses.
 
Three optimally designed steel bridges from the NCHRP 20-7/186 report with varying ratios of dead, wearing surface, and live loads are used to perform the reliability analyses and assess safety. Truck traffic along I-80 creates more demand than that assumed in the AASHTO LRFD bridge design procedures. The greater demand results in reliability indices that do not meet target safety levels and have reliability indices significantly less than 3.5. Two issues should be addressed: (1) the unacceptably low-reliability indices for short multi-span bridges (2) the overall low-reliability indices for all span lengths.
 
The “optional” (low-boy) dual tandem load where there is tandem in adjacent spans in the AASHTO LRFD commentary significantly increases the negative design live load moments. Using the dual tandem, the reliability indices for the shorter two-span bridges increase to 3.00 and above, placing this bridge type into the range of the reliability indices for the other bridge span lengths. However, indices are below the target. Raising the design live load factor, L, directly and fairly uniformly increases reliability indices. An increase in L to 2.00 (from 1.75) increases almost all of the reliability indices above 3.50. In summary, the “optional” low boy load should be used for design and will control shorter multiple-span bridges in the negative moment region.
 
Data and the Data Management Plan:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report. The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

HISTORICAL WINTER WEATHER ASSESSMENT FOR SNOW FENCE DESIGN USING A NUMERICAL WEATHER MODEL

Noriaki Ohara, Ph.D, orcid.org/0000-0002-7829-0779
FHWA-WY-1703F; RS 06215
ROSAP 32429

RS06215 HISTORICAL WEATHER.png

Abstract:  Snow fence is an effective hazard mitigation measure for the low visibility and low friction of the road surface under winter weather condition.  Prevailing wind directions and snow precipitation data prepared by Dr. R. Tabler (the Tabler data) that are necessary for snow fence design have not been updated since the 1990s.  This project provides new, seamless wind field and snow precipitation data under the adverse winter storm conditions during 1980-2014, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data input.  The simulated wind fields were successfully validated by using the observed data from airport sites and using the Tabler data.  The WRF simulated precipitation data were assimilated to the observation-based PRISM data in order to obtain the accurate hourly snow precipitation data.  Combining all the weather variables, the number of blowing snow events is found to be increasing despite the increasing air temperature because of the sufficiently cold winters of Wyoming.  Finally, it was verified that the existing snow fence system is effective under the winter season prevailing wind since the simulation agrees with the Tabler data.  However, it was also found that the simulated wind patterns during the blowing snow events can be quite different from the winter season average prevailing wind field.  Moreover, the historical wind statistics indicated large deviations in wind direction along I-80.  

Data and the Data Management Plan All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

CALIBRATING CRASH MODIFICATION FACTORS FOR WYOMING-SPECIFIC CONDITIONS:  APPLICATION OF THE HIGHWAY SAFETY MANUAL - PART D

Mohamed Ahmed, Ph.D., P.E.- orcid.org/0000-0002-1921-0724

Sherif Gaweesh, M.S. - orcid.org/0000-0001-7977-6378

Md Julfiker Hossain -orcid.org/0000-0001-7173-7040

Sadia Sharmin – orcid.org/0000-0003-0947-8345

Thomas Peel – orcid.org/ 0000-0002-5357-602
WY-17/04F; RS03216
(ROSAP 34748)

 

WY-1704F; RS03216.png

WY-1704F; RS03216 b.png

Original Photos © 2016 Pathway Video Logs

 

Abstract:  This study is considered a first step towards validating the applicability of the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) Part D to Wyoming conditions. The HSM Part D provides a quantitative measure of safety for various countermeasures known as crash modification factors (CMF). These CMFs are provided for four distinct groups of treatments; roadway segments (e.g., rumble strips, passing lanes, etc.), intersections (e.g., flashing yellow arrows), special facilities (e.g., Highway-rail crossings, and interchanges), and road networks. CMFs provided in the HSM Part D are calibrated based on data collected from a few states in the US, which may not represent the same safety efficacy of countermeasures implemented in Wyoming. The objectives of this study are (1) to validate the applicability of the HSM Part D to Wyoming conditions, (2) to calibrate CMFs for various countermeasures in Wyoming, and (3) to provide recommendations in terms of data requirements, how to mitigate data shortcoming, and applicability of alternative analytical methodologies to evaluate the safety effectiveness of specific countermeasures.  Depending on data availability, various observational before-after and cross-sectional techniques were adopted in this study to calibrate CMFs for six countermeasures applied to roadway segments, intersections, and special facilities. The results indicated that the majority of these countermeasures are statistically significant in reducing crash frequencies and severity.

 

Derivative and matching reports:  
Data and the Data Management Plan:   The types of data and/or datasets generated and/or used in this project include various data sets obtained from WYDOT, these data included construction dates, crash data acquired from the Critical Analysis Reporting Environment (CARE) software, and road geometric and traffic characteristics. Other manual data collection techniques utilizing non-traditional data sources were also developed. Pathway video logs, as well as satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro® and Google Maps, were manually reduced to substitute missing construction dates, and to obtain accurate roadway geometric characteristics.   The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
MITIGATION STRATEGIES TO REDUCE TRUCK CRASH RATES ON WYOMING HIGHWAYS
 
M Mahdi Rezapour Mashhadi orcid.org/0000-0003-0774-737X 
Promothes Saha, Ph.D., P.E. orcid.org/0000-0003-3298-8327
Trenna Terrill orcid.org/0000-0002-5239-6380
Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E. orcid.org/0000-0003-3532-6839
WY-1705F; RS05215
(ROSAP 34747)
 
WY-1705F; RS05215.bmp
Source:  Google Images 2017
Abstract:  Wyoming has one of the highest large truck crash rates in the country. This is due to a variety of reasons, which include: the significant amount of through truck traffic on I-80, adverse weather conditions, and the challenging geometric conditions. The main objective of this study is to develop mitigation strategies to reduce these high truck crash rates and provide recommendations to the agencies that can help to enhance truck-related safety. These agencies include: the Wyoming Highway Patrol (WHP), the Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT), and the trucking industry in Wyoming.
All interstates in Wyoming (I-80, I-25, and I-90 totaling 910 miles) and three state highways (US 26, US 30 and Wy 59 totaling 337 miles) were included in this study.  A variety of datasets including: crash data, traffic volumes, traffic citations, roadway geometry and enforcement data were investigated. Various statistical modeling techniques were successfully implemented to identify factors behind truck-related crashes. A crash and citation hot spot analysis were conducted to develop a strategy to shift enforcement resources.  In addition, an enforcement analysis were conducted to estimate the effectiveness of highway patrol resources by comparing the highway patrol personnel, budget and percent time patrolling from seven surrounded states of Wyoming. Finally, this study provided recommendations to the three different agencies mentioned above.  The recommendations to WHP focused on where and when to provide more enforcement and which type of enforcement is more effective in reducing truck-related crashes. The recommendations to WYDOT included safety countermeasures to help reduce truck-related crashes. The recommendations to the trucking industry concentrated on information that should be included in the safety training to educate truck drivers in reducing truck-related crashes.
 
Derivative and matching reports:  
Data and the Data Management Plan:    This study gathered crash data, citation data, traffic data, geometry data, and enforcement data.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUSHED BASE MATERIALS IN WYOMING
 
Kam Ng, orcid.org/0000-0001-5099-5454
Dawit Mebrahtom, orcid.org/0000-0003-2256-8193
Khaled Ksaibati, orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792
WY-1706F; RS02216
(ROSAP 34780)
 
WY-1706F; RS02216.png
Abstract:  To improve the pavement design and construction in Wyoming, the Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) is adopting the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). A full implementation of MEPDG requires the characterization of local crushed base materials. In this research, laboratory experiments on resilient modulus were performed to characterize the local crushed base materials in Wyoming. A comprehensive resilient modulus test program was completed by following the WYDOT modified AASHTO T 307, which incorporates WYDOT design and testing practices. The cyclic triaxial testing chamber for confining load application, two axial load sensors, and two spring-loaded linear variable transducers (LVDTs) to measure the recoverable axial strain of an aggregate specimen was used in determining the laboratory resilient modulus. Effects of moisture content, percent fine, stress, gradation, and fractured face on base resilient modulus were assessed, and estimation models were developed using statistical methods. The coefficients of constitutive models developed by NCHRP (2004) and Hicks and Monismith (1971) were calibrated for the locally available crushed base materials. Finally, a design table and chart for the estimation of base resilient modulus was developed to facilitate the full implementation of the MEPDG in Wyoming. 
 
Data and the Data Management Plan:    All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report. The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
EVALUATION OF WETLAND MITIGATION IN THE GREATER YELLOWSTONE ECOSYSTEM: WILDLIFE POPULATION AND COMMUNITY RESPONSES

Leah Swartz; orcid.org/ 0000-0003-2315-8727

Erin Muths; orcid.org/ 0000-0002-5498-3132

Blake Hossack; orcid.org/ 0000-0001-7456-9564
WY-1707F; RS04212
(ROSAP 36679)
 
WY-1707F; RS04212.png
 
Abstract:  The 2006‒2013 reconstruction of US Highway 26/287 over Togwotee Pass, Wyoming, impacted or caused the loss of natural wetlands. To comply with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers permit conditions, the Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) recently completed construction or restoration of 38 mitigation wetlands along the Highway 26/287 corridor and at the aggregate pit site at the U.S. Forest Service Blackrock Ranger Station. This study provides WYDOT information on differences among wetlands created to mitigate for wetland loss (n=10), wetlands impacted but not destroyed (n=7), and natural wetlands (n=16) relative to various aspects of wildlife that use these habitats. We compare characteristics of amphibians, a pathogenic fungus, invertebrates, and birds. Created wetlands in this study area were significantly shallower than natural and impacted wetlands and had shorter hydroperiods; but impacted wetlands were similar in physical habitat characteristics to natural wetlands. Boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas) rapidly colonized newly created wetlands and annual survival and recruitment rates were similar in created and natural wetlands. Boreal chorus frogs (Pseudacris maculata) were less than half as likely to occupy created wetlands as natural and impacted wetlands but population sizes were high in at least one created wetland. Barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) occurred in natural and impacted wetlands at similar levels, but we observed reproduction by Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) at only one created wetland-they were common in natural and impacted wetlands. There was no difference in the prevalence of the pathogenic fungus between created & natural wetlands. Species richness of invertebrates was lower in created wetlands than in natural and impacted wetlands and the community composition of invertebrates differed among wetland types. Communities in created wetlands were more likely to be dominated by flying species compared to communities in natural wetlands that had more passive dispersers such as snails and clams. We recorded bird calls in two created & two natural wetlands; species richness was similar but some riparian specialists (e.g., willow flycatcher, Wilson’s warbler) were not detected at either created wetland. Our results suggest that wetland creation can be an important tool for conserving wetland-dependent wildlife. Understanding how animals use created wetlands sites is a critical component to understanding the efficacy of mitigation efforts and determining alternative (e.g., earlier) “endpoints”. This report highlights characteristics in created sites that are advantageous to species that are perhaps “non-focal”, but important members of the natural community. The data presented here provide support for earlier endpoints for determining success in created wetlands and a baseline for continued monitoring of these or other created sites.
 
Data and the Data Management Plan:    Data are included in the data release (USGS, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7MW2G32): site covariates (depth, ph, Conductivity), Anaxyrus boreas and Pseudacris maculata capture-mark-recapture data, eggmass totals for Rana luteiventris, disease data (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), invertebrate and bird species richness for select sites. Other data (wetland occupancy and amphibian phenology are included in the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
 
IMPROVING TRANSPORTATION SAFETY ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS:  SAFETY TOOLKIT
 
Wyoming Technology Transfer Center (WYT2/LTAP)
WY-1708F; RS05217
 
Abstract:  Transportation safety is a crucial issue for Indian Reservations as well as all other communities throughout the country. The Improving transportation safety on Indian Reservations-Safety Toolkit presents a five-step safety improvement program process in determining high-risk road segments and their corresponding countermeasures on Indian Reservations. The five steps are: Crash data Analysis, Level I field evaluation, combined ranking to identify potential high-risk locations based on steps 1 and 2, Level II field evaluation to identify countermeasures, and Benefit-cost analysis. Intended for low-cost safety improvements, each step in the Toolkit includes a set of tools, field and professional examples and useful resources to implement the steps. The methodology provides flexibility for the Tribes to utilize the process the way they consider best to address. It has been implemented on several Indian reservations and has great success to reduce the high number of fatal crashes prevalent in the reservations’ roadways.
 
Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.   
 
 
Completed Projects for FY2018 (Oct. 1, 2017 to Sept. 30, 2018)
 
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF RIGID SNOW SUPPORTING STRUCTURES AT THE MILEPOST 151 AVALANCHE, JACKSON, WYOMING
 
RS0801 RS07212 Snow Support.png
 
Joshua Hewes;  orcid.org/0000-0002-2098-4399
WY-1801F; RS 07212
(ROSAP 42487)
 
Abstract:  In order to validate the methods used to design a novel, rigid snow supporting structure system, a research project to experimentally monitor for two winter seasons and visually inspect it over three summers was performed for WYDOT through their Research Center. One snow supporting structure was instrumented with pressure transducers to record down-slope snow pressures imparted to the supporting surface. Snow depth immediately uphill of the structure was measured as was ambient and snowpack temperature. Additionally, strain gages mounted to parts of the structure were used to back-check the recorded snow forces by static equilibrium. Pressure distributions with depth were parabolic and maximum at approximately mid-height of the structure. Average, uniform snow pressures determined from the experimental data were compared to pressures predicted by the Swiss Guide and McClung’s analytical models. Maximum uniform pressures over the two winter seasons were 38 percent and 22 percent greater than the Swiss Guide and McClung snow pressure predictions. Variation of snow pressure across the lateral dimension (width) of the structure was also investigated and the maximum experimental end-effect factor of 4.9 correlated very well with the end-effect factor specified in the Swiss Guide of 4.75. The location of snow force resultants were also calculated for all data and an average value of 56 percent of the snowpack height measured from the ground surface was obtained. This compared well with the assumed 50 percent or mid-height location prescribed by the Swiss Guide. Finally, the maximum local pressures across the height of the structure were compared to the experimental uniform pressures and an average ratio of maximum-to average of 1.8 was obtained. This is greater than the Swiss Guide’s assumption of 1.3, and it is recommended that individual members such as crossbeams be designed using the Swiss Guide average pressure increased by the 1.8 factor. In general, it was shown that the assumptions and design values produced using the Swiss Guide expressions can be used for an irregular plan layout of snow supporting structures such as that used at the Milepost 151 Avalanche.
 
Data:   All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
LAST MILE COMMERCIAL PACKAGE DELIVERY AS A REVENUE GENERATION TOOL FOR RURAL PUBLIC TRANSPORTATIONS SYSTEMS IN WYOMING
 
1802 RS10216 Last Mile.png
 
Karalyn Clouser; orcid.org/0000-0002-5968-094X
Jaydeep Chaudhari; orcid.org/0000-0001-7889-4145
WY-1802F; RS10216
(ROSAP 37287)
 
Abstract:  Last-mile delivery has emerged as the most important segment in supply chain management of the package deliveries. It is a daunting task to achieve for the manufacturers to sellers at local, regional, state, national, and global levels. Many e-commerce giants are creating their own delivery service in order to reduce shipping costs and improve shipping services to customers. It is likely that Amazon and other delivery companies may turn to the urban and rural transit industry to partner in last-mile package delivery. Given the growth in the delivery market, it appears to be the right time to investigate how rural transit may have a role in the last mile package delivery system. The goal of this project is to assess the feasibility of last-mile package delivery as a revenue generation tool for rural public transportation systems in Wyoming. In an effort to assess the feasibility, the research team conducted an in-depth literature review and surveyed local Wyoming businesses, state department of transportation officials, and transit managers. The survey results, literature review, and demand and potential revenue suggest that the transit agencies have a needed capacity to add a package delivery service, a market for the service, and a facility to house the service. Looking at the number of households in Wyoming, the researchers estimate that each county could see minimum $24,005 in potential revenue from package delivery via public transportation systems. The following are specific recommendations that, if implemented, would help to initiate package deliveries in rural areas: 1) Build a relationship with riders, businesses, and stakeholders; 2) Access potential markets; 3) Develop a level of package delivery services; 4) Develop integration of passenger and package delivery services; 5) Collaborate with Intercity Bus Services and other package delivery companies; and 6) Begin building a package delivery infrastructure. A strong and continuing support of WYDOT to transit services to add last-mile package delivery will benefit transit agencies, their parent organizations, local communities, businesses, organizations, and e-commerce and shipping industries.
 
Data and the Data Management Plan:   All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT FOR HIGHWAY AVALANCHE HAZARD MANAGEMENT:  'Choosing the Right Tool for the Job'
 
1803 RS06211 Avalanche.png
 
Rand Decker; orcid.org/0000-0002-5487-1392
WY 18/03F; RS06211
(ROSAP 37251)
 
Abstract:  There are a dozen different technologies that can be naturally sub-divided into two very different avalanche control and defense paradigms that can be used to manage avalanche hazards on mountain highways: active avalanche control and passive/constructed avalanche defense. The Wyoming Department of Transportation’s (WYDOT) avalanche control and defense program in and around Jackson, Wyoming, utilizes five different active avalanche control technologies and one passive/constructed deployment of snow supporting structures. In this report, metrics of cost for these avalanche control and defense technologies are analyzed. The seasonal cost of WYDOT’s avalanche control and defense program rose from $97,000 in 2008/09 to $172,000 by 2015/16, largely in response to investment in modern active control and passive/constructed avalanche defense. As a consequence, traffic delays have been reduced, as have a reliance on the military howitzer for active avalanche control. Traffic delays can be further reduced through investment in high capacity avalanche debris cleanup capabilities. As the seasonal costs for WYDOT’s avalanche control and defense program have grown, the percent fraction of these program costs for personnel has declined. There is a margin to improve capacity building and professional development of existing and future WYDOT avalanche control personnel. In large part to free up WYDOT active avalanche control personnel to focus on State Route 22, on Teton Pass, it is recommended that US Route 189/191, in Hoback Canyon, be defended in the future with snow-net snow supporting structures. State Route 22 on Teton Pass is poised to become a state-of-the-art active avalanche control program, and needs to be. Despite the successful reduction in its use, the military weapon component of WYDOT’s active avalanche control program provides low-cost redundancy and should be maintained in reserve. There are traffic delays from avalanche control of two different durations, short delays of an hour or less, and much more uncommon delays of several hours or more. Long duration traffic delay for avalanche control can be managed to further reduce its impacts on motorists.
 
Data:   All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data

EVALUATING THE RISK OF ALKALI-SILICA REACTION IN WYOMING:  CONTINUED EVALUATION OF FIELD SPECIMENS AND PROPOSED MITIGATION STRATEGIES

1804 RS02215 Alkali Silica.png

Bryce Fiore, orcid.org/0000-0002-7446-3644
Md Tarik Hossain, orcid.org/0000-0002-4514-5620
 Margaret Kimble, orcid.org/0000-0002-1735-7714
 Fayez AlMutawa, orcid.org/0000-0002-2164-0416

 Jennifer Eisenhauer Tanner, orcid.org/0000-0002-8279-6289
WY-18/04F; RS07212

Abstract:  A comprehensive study was performed to evaluate mitigation options to reduce premature expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) for selected Wyoming aggregates. State-of-the-art and standardized test methods were performed and results were used to compare expansion levels. Four different fly-ash sources were tested. All of the sources mitigated the moderately reactive aggregates; the most highly expansive aggregate was mitigated by two out of the four fly ash sources. An exploratory test, the Autoclave Concrete Prism Test (ACPT) was evaluated by comparing results with the University of Wyoming and the University of Alabama. Test data shows agreement between two independent laboratories.

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
DRIVER PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR IN ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS:  AN INVESTIGATION USING THE SHRP2 NATURALISTIC DRIVING STUDY  DATA - PHASE 2
 
1806F RS07216 SHRP II.png
 
Mohamed Ahmed, Ph.D., P.E. (orcid.org/0000-0002-1921-0724)
Ali Ghasemzadeh, Ph.D. (orcid.org/0000-0003-1232-251X)
Britton Hammit, Ph.D. Candidate (orcid.org/0000-0002-8859-9075)
Nasim Khan, MS Student (orcid.org/0000-0001-5996-091X)
Anik Das, MS Student (orcid.org/0000-0003-4674-5334)
Elhashemi Ali, Ph.D. Candidate (orcid.org/0000-0001-7643-7143)
Rhonda K. Young, Ph.D., P.E. (orcid.org/0000-0001-6745-5008)
Hesham Eldeeb, Ph.D. (HIS) (orcid.org/0000-0001-9669-5991)
WY-1805F; RS07216
(ROSAP 35664)
 
Abstract:  The impact of adverse weather conditions on transportation operation and safety is the focus of many studies; however, comprehensive research detailing the differences in driving behavior and performance during adverse conditions is limited. Many previous studies utilized aggregate traffic and weather data (e.g., average speed, headway, and global weather information) to formulate conclusions about the weather impact on network operation and safety; therefore, research into specific factors associated with driver performance and behavior are notably absent. A novel approach, presented in this report, can fill the gap in previous studies by considering disaggregate trajectory-level data available through the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study and Roadway Information Database. Parametric and non-parametric models were utilized to better understand different behavioral factors including speed selection, car following and lane-keeping in adverse weather conditions. The purpose of this study was to gather insights into driver behavior and performance in different weather conditions, such that efficient logic can be implemented to introduce a realistic Variable Speed Limit system, aimed at maximizing speed compliance and reducing speed variations. This study provides valuable information related to drivers’ interaction with real-time changes in roadway and weather conditions, leading to a better understanding of the effectiveness of operational countermeasures.
 
Derivative and matching reports:  
  • Ghasemzadeh, A., and M. M. Ahmed. Drivers’ Lane-Keeping Ability in Heavy Rain: Preliminary Investigation Using SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study Data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2663, 2017, pp. 99–108.
  • Ahmed, M. M., R. K. Young, A. Ghasemzadeh, B. Hammit, A. Elhashemi, N. Khan, A. Das, and H. Eldeeb. Implementation of SHRP2 results within the Wyoming connected vehicle variable speed limit system: Phase 2 early findings report and phase 3 proposal. 2017.
  • Ghasemzadeh, A., and M. M. Ahmed. A Probit-Decision Tree Approach to Analyze Effects of Adverse Weather Conditions on Work Zone Crash Severity Using Second Strategic Highway Research Program Roadway Information Dataset. 96th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C. 2017.
  • Ahmed, M. M., A. Ghasemzadeh, H. Eldeeb, S. Gaweesh, J. Clapp, K. Ksaibati, and R. Young. Driver Performance and Behavior in Adverse Weather Conditions: An Investigation Using the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study Data—Phase 1. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.24061.05602. 2015.
  • Ghasemzadeh, A., B. Hammit, M. M. Ahmed, and H. Eldeeb. Complementary Methodologies to Identify Weather Conditions in Naturalistic Driving Study Trips: Lessons Learned from the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study & Roadway Information Database. 97th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C. 2018.
  • Ghasemzadeh, A., and M. Ahmed. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines and Logistic Regression Models to Identify the Impact of Rainy Weather on Driver Lane-keeping Performance Considering Driver Demographics and Roadway Characteristics Using SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Data. 2018.
  • Ghasemzadeh, A., B. Hammit, M. Ahmed, and R. Young. Using Parametric Ordinal Logistic Regression and Non-Parametric Decision Tree Approaches for Assessing the Impact of Weather Conditions on Driver Speed Selection Using Naturalistic Driving Data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. In press, 2018.
  • Ghasemzadeh, A., and M. M. Ahmed. Crash Characteristics and Injury Severity at Work Zones Considering Adverse Weather Conditions in Washington Using SHRP 2 Roadway Information Database. 95th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C. 2016.
  • Hammit, B., A. Ghasemzadeh, M. M. Ahmed, and R. K. Young. Evaluation of Weather-Related Freeway Car-Following Behavior using the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study. 97th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C. 2018.
  • Ghasemzadeh, A., and M. M. Ahmed. A Tree-Based Ordered Probit Approach to Identify Factors Affecting Work Zone Weather-Related Crashes Severity in North Carolina Using the Highway Safety Information System Dataset. 96th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C. 2017.
  • Khan, N. M., A. Ghasemzadeh, and M. M. Ahmed. Investigating the Impact of Fog on Freeway Speed Selection Using the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study Data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. In press, 2018.
  • Das, A., A. Ghasemzadeh, and M. M. Ahmed. A Comprehensive Analysis of Driver Lane-Keeping Performance in Fog Weather Conditions Using the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study Data. 2018.
  • Ahmed, M. M., and A. Ghasemzadeh. Exploring the Impacts of Adverse Weather Conditions on Speed and Headway Behaviors Using the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study Data. 96th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 2017. 2017.
  • Ghasemzadeh, A., and M. M. Ahmed. Utilizing naturalistic driving data for in-depth analysis of driver lane-keeping behavior in rain: Non-parametric MARS and parametric logistic regression modeling approaches. Transportation Research Part C, Vol. In press, 2018.
Data and the Data Management PlanAll archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
EVALUATION OF THE WYDOT RESEARCH CENTER AND RESEARCH CENTER (PHASE III)
 
1806F RS04217 Evaluatiuon RS.png
 
Promothes Saha, Ph.D., P.E. (orcid.org/0000-0003-3298-8327)
Nikolai A Greer (orcid.org/0000-0002-7342-5136)
Er Yue (orcid.org/0000-0001-7968-1088)
Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E. (orcid.org/0000-0003-3532-6839)
WY-1806F; RS04217
Abstract:  An effective research center within a transportation organization can be a valuable asset to accomplish the goals of the overall mission. It is important to measure the benefits of a transportation research center on a regular basis to determine if research budgets have been used effectively, and to maintain the support of management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) Research Center. This study performed a detail analysis of the proposals submitted to Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) from 2010 to 2016 to evaluate the effectiveness of the Research Center. The analysis included the investigation of performance measures, and compared to the Phase II Study completed in 2012. These performance measures are quantifiable, meaning they are designed to place a score or value on the accomplishments of the Research Center which can then be used to make managerial decisions for the Research Center. As a part of the study, feedback and performance evaluation surveys were conducted from the Principal Investigators (PIs) and the WYDOT Project Champions. In addition, a methodology for benefit-to-cost analysis (BCA) was developed to be included as a future performance measure. This report summarized the analysis, and provided the conclusions and recommendations. Specific recommendations and conclusions for the WYDOT Research Center are presented in the final chapter of this report.
 
Derivative and matching reports:  
 
Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
TRAFFIC THRESHOLDS IN DEER ROAD-CROSSING BEHAVIOR
 
1807F RS04216 Traffic Threshold.png
 
Corinna Riginos (orcid.org/0000-0001-9082-5206)
Chauncey Smith (orcid.org/0000-0001-8861-6763)
Elizabeth Fairbank (orcid.org/0000-0003-4929-1358)
Erica Hansen (orcid.org/0000-0001-7303-260X)
Peter Hallsten (orcid.org/0000-0003-0326-7643)
 
Abstract:  Roads have two major effects on ungulate populations: they can cause direct mortality through wildlife-vehicle collisions, and they can create partial to complete barriers to animal movements, cutting animals off from food and habitat resources they need. Wildlife-vehicle collisions are also dangerous and costly to the traveling public. The most effective way to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions and the barrier effects of roads is to install wildlife crossing structures with game fencing; these measures are 80-100percenteffective.  However, they are costly, and managers are challenged to make informed decisions about where to prioritize their installation.  In this report, we developed two key pieces of information to help inform these decisions.  We used a gap-acceptance approach to determine the duration of gap between consecutive vehicles that enables deer to safely and consistently crossroads.  We found that a60 second gap is necessary to allow deer to safely cross roads 90percentof the time. We used traffic data to relate this gap duration to hourly traffic volume and to assess the relative degree to which different hotspots of deer-vehicle collisions in Wyoming are permeable or impermeable to deer.  We also conducted cost-benefit analyses for six different methods of reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions for the WYDOT road network.
 
Derivative and matching reports:  
 
Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
Completed Projects for FY2019 (Oct. 1, 2018 to Sept. 30, 2019)
 
UPDATING AND IMPLEMENTING THE GRADE SEVERITY RATING SYSTEM (GSRS) FOR WYOMING MOUNTAIN PASSES
(VOL 1 and VOL 2)
 
Milhan Moomen (orcid.org/0000-0001-8324-7540)
Mustaffa Ngah Raja (orcid.org/0000-0001-7480-5133)
Dick Apronti
(
orcid.org/0000-0002-2072-2030)
Mohammed Mahdi Rezapour (
orcid.org/0000-0002-3368-722X)
Khaled Ksaibati
(
orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792)
WY-1901F; RS08216
(ROSAP 42490)
Abstract:  The State of Wyoming like other western States is characterized by steep downgrades on mountainous highways. Such difficult terrain presents considerable crash risks to truck drivers inexperienced or unfamiliar with the landscape. Truck crashes on Wyoming mountain passes have been a cause for concern due to their devastating effect on lives and property. A major contributory factor to such truck crashes is brake failure. The risk of truck brake failure on downgrades is high due to the large amounts of heat energy generated during braking activity in such a difficult geometry. The Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS) was developed in the early 1980s to enhance truck safety on downgrades by recommending maximum safe descent speeds through Weight Specific Speed (WSS) signs. However, truck designs, brake and engine characteristics have changed during the intervening decades. This study updated the GSRS model to reflect current truck population characteristics. The updated GSRS model will engender driver compliance and confidence in the new recommended speeds, thereby improving mountain pass safety in Wyoming.
 
Data:  All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
Development of Load and Resistance Factor Design Procedures for Driven Piles on Soft Rocks in Wyoming
 
Kam W. Ng (orcid.org/0000-0001-5099-5454)
Pramila Adhikari (orcid.org/0000-0003-2155-3467)
Yrgalem Z. Gebreslasie (orcid.org/0000-0001-6378-6483)

WY-1902F; RS06216
(ROSAP 42589)

 

Abstract:  Analysis methods originally developed for soils are currently used for estimating pile resistances in Intermediate Geomaterials (IGMs), and structural capacity has been considered as the limiting pile capacity on hard rocks. The application of current Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for piles in IGMs has resulted in relatively high uncertainties in pile resistance estimation during design and the length to which the piles are driven into IGMs during construction. Moreover, the absence of standard criteria to differentiate the geomaterials creates challenges in the design and construction of driven piles in IGMs. The application of a dynamic analysis method using Wave Equation Analysis Program is constrained by geomaterial input for IGMs and rocks. These current challenges have led to conservative pile resistance estimations. Thus, the overall objectives of this study were to determine efficient static analysis methods, dynamic procedures for construction control, pile setup/relaxation, and resistance factors for the estimation of the axial pile resistances in IGMs, ensuring a prescribed level of reliability to meet LRFD philosophy. To accomplish these objectives, classification criteria of geomaterials were first created to establish a standard quantitative delineation between the soils, IGMs, and hard rocks for the design of driven piles. In addition, a catalog of IGM properties was prepared to facilitate the design of piles in IGMs. Secondly, a new set of design equations were developed and validated for IGMs by utilizing the developed geomaterial classification criteria. Thirdly, wave equation analysis procedures for IGMs were recommended for pile construction control. Fourthly, changes in pile resistances in IGMs with respect to time at the end of driving and beginning of restrike were assessed. Finally, probability-based resistance factors were calibrated and recommended based on the efficiency factors for the existing and calibrated static analysis methods. To facilitate the implementation of the recommended LRFD procedures, a pile design example is developed.

 

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
MASH TEST 3-10 ON WYOMING BOX BEAM SHOULDER BARRIER
 
Roger P. Bligh (orcid.org/0000-0001-5699-070X)
Wanda L. Menges (orcid.org/0000-0002-1425-7937)
Bill L. Griffith (orcid.org/0000-0003-2268-4688)
Glenn E. Schroeder (orcid.org/0000-0003-2124-3493)

WY-1903F; RS05218
 

Abstract:  

The objective of this project was to complete the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) evaluation of the Wyoming box beam shoulder barrier by performing MASH Test 3-10. MASH Test 3-10 involves a 1100C vehicle impacting the barrier at a target impact speed and impact angle of 62 mi/h and 25°, respectively.

This report provides details of the Wyoming box beam shoulder barrier, detailed documentation of the crash test results, and an assessment of the performance of the Wyoming box beam shoulder barrier for MASH Test 3-10 evaluation criteria. Additionally, the MASH compliance of the Wyoming box beam shoulder barrier is discussed.

The Wyoming box beam shoulder barrier performed acceptably for MASH Test 3-10. The Wyoming box beam shoulder barrier performed acceptably for MASH Test 3-11 under National Cooperative Highway Research Program Project 22-14(03). Based on the successful outcome of both tests, it is concluded that the Wyoming box beam shoulder barrier is MASH compliant as a Test Level 3 longitudinal barrier.

 

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
Effectiveness of Night-time Speed Limit Reduction in Reducing Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions
 
Corinna Riginos (orcid.org/0000-0001-9082-5206),
Elizabeth Fairbank (
orcid.org/0000-0003-4929-1358)
Erica Hansen (
orcid.org/0000-0001-7303-260X)
Jaron Kolek (
orcid.org/0000-0002-2795-0386)
Marcel Huijser (
orcid.org/0000-0002-4355-463)

WY-1904F; RS11216

ROSAP (42488)
 

Abstract:  Wildlife-vehicle collisions are dangerous and costly to the traveling public and pose a threat to wildlife populations. Transportation managers continue to evaluate the effectiveness of measures that have been employed to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVCs). One potential measure is to reduce the posted speed limit at night and during dawn and dusk hours. The theoretical mechanism for this measure to work is that drivers reduce their operating speeds, increasing their stopping distances when they see an animal in the road, and therefore avoiding collisions with those animals. Although reduced night-time speed limits are being used in many places with the goal of reducing WVCs, there has been almost no research to evaluate whether drivers reduce their operating speeds and whether a reduction in the number of WVCs results. We conducted a thorough experiment in which posted speed limits were reduced from 70 mph to 55 mph during dusk to dawn hours in key deer activity seasons at six sites in southwestern Wyoming. Drivers reduced their speeds in response to the posted speed limit reduction, but the average reduction was only 3-5 mph. At winter sites, where the reduced speed limit was in effect for seven months, there was no evidence of any reduction in WVCs. At migration sites, where the reduced speed limit was in effect for two months at a time, there was some evidence of fewer WVCs, although it was not clear that this could be attributed to the reduced speed limit. We recommend that reduced posted speed limit is not an effective measure to reduce WVCs on high-speed rural two-lane highways.

 

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SITE-SPECIFIC SEISMIC GROUND MOTIONS ANALYSES FOR A GRAVELLY SITE IN WYOMING
 
Shawn C. Griffiths, Ph.D., (orcid.org/0000-0003-0694-4769)

 Josh D. Frazier, M.S., (orcid.org/0000-0001-7529-5366)

WY-1905F; RS06217
(ROSAP 42491)

Abstract:  Surface wave testing was performed as part of the sub-surface soil investigation for a bridge replacement project to be constructed within the next five years by the Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT), over the Snake River near Jackson Wyoming. This investigation was performed in order to determine the shear wave velocity structure and seismic site classification for the site. The surface wave testing is part of a larger study to perform a site-specific seismic site response analysis for the site and determine if reductions in design ground motions can be justified. The site has sub-surface conditions consisting of gravels and cobbles (2.5 in. to 10 in. diameter material) that can present challenges for surface wave testing, and other investigation techniques. For both sides of the river active surface wave data was collected and analyzed using the Multi-channel analyses of surface wave (MASW) method. This data was combined with passive data collected using micro-tremor array measurement (MAM) techniques in both an L-array and nested equilateral triangular arrays.  The triangular arrays included total side lengths between 20 and 200 meters. Horizontal to Vertical ratio data was also obtained, but was not used due to poor signal quality. The analyses of the collected surface wave data employed a joint inversion procedure using the layering ratio method.  The inversion yielded site-specific shear wave velocity profiles. Both abutments classified as seismic soil Site Class D. In total over 448 analyses were performed in order to quantify the uncertainty in the analyses from the ground motions and shear wave velocity profiles. The site-specific analyses justified a decrease in the design spectral accelerations at most frequency/periods when compared with generic code-based procedures. The site-specific seismic site response analysis provides more realistic seismic loading scenarios for the site under investigation. The reductions in spectral accelerations could result in significant cost savings for WYDOT.

 

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 
Structural Health Monitoring of Highway Bridges Subjected to Overweight Vehicles, Phase II - Field Deployment
 
Johnn Judd (https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5466-3940)
Michael Barker (https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8223-8271
)
Renxiang Lu (https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0681-6436)

WY-1906F; RS06216
(ROSAP 44233)

 

Abstract:  This report describes Phase II of a research project to develop a structural health monitoring system for highway bridges subjected to overweight trucks.  Two field tests were conducted.  The Laramie River bridge, located at mile post (MP) 312.33, on Interstate-80 (I-80), in Laramie, Wyoming, was tested to evaluate bridge behavior and to develop a prototype structural health monitoring system using fiber optic sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings.  The field test validated the accuracy of the fiber Bragg grating fiber topic sensors, but it revealed that the fiber optic sensors, cables, and interrogator system components developed in the laboratory during Phase I of the research project have several challenges when employed in the field.  The Bear River bridge located at MP 5.87 on I-80 in Evanston, Wyoming was tested to evaluate bridge behavior and to prepare for deployment of an improved structural health monitoring system.  The improved structural health monitoring system minimizes signal loss and sensor detachment, allows for reconfiguration of sensors, facilitates removal of the system, handles rough continuous data streams, collects, filters, stores, packages, and transmits data via cellular service for long-term storage and post-processing.  A triggering system was developed that utilizes passive or active wireless communication techniques.  The structural health monitoring system was deployed and operated at the Bear River bridge.

 

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

Completed Projects for FY2020 (Oct. 1, 2019 to Sept. 30, 2020)

 

Safety and Operational Analysis with Mitigation Strategies for Freeway Truck Traffic in Wyoming

Milan Zlatkovic, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6777-230X

Khaled Ksaibati, Ph.D., P.E., https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9241-1792

Muhammad Tahmidul Haq, M.S., https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3307-288X

WY-2002F; RS06218
 

Abstract:  Interstate 80, in Wyoming, is characterized by heavy truck traffic, with an average of 47 percent of heavy trucks in the traffic flow. Trucks have significantly different physical and driving characteristics than passenger cars, especially on grades, which has impacts on operational efficiency and safety. The presence of heavy vehicles reduces the capacity of freeway segments, with the reduction being more significant along with specific grades. This study explores the safety and operational performance along I-80, with a focus on the benefits of climbing lanes along with steep grades. Crash rate analysis indicated that the truck crash rates are higher than all vehicle crash rates. The analysis of major contributing factors showed that 54 percent of truck crashes occurred during icy road conditions, snowy weather conditions contributed to about 46 percent, and driving too fast and driving in improper lane contributed to approximately 45 percent of total truck-related crashes. The maximum percentage of truck crashes occurred within a 4000-6000 ft curve radius range, however, this was not found to be significant. The results show that the addition of climbing lanes reduces delays and increases overall traffic speeds on upgrades, and can reduce the total crashes and truck-related crashes 6 to 34 percent, and 1 to 16 percent, respectively, depending on the analyzed location and applied methodology. The 20-year benefit-cost ratio for climbing lanes installation was found to be between 2 and 11, depending on the location. The majority of fatal crashes on I-80 occurred in car-truck collisions. Impaired driving, use of alcohol or illegal drugs, not using seatbelts, fatigue, and dangerous driving were found to increase the injury severity significantly. A large portion of truck-related crashes had tire failure as the main contributing factor.

 

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 

Design and Performance Evaluation of a Semiflexible Snow Barrier for Avalanche Protection

Joshua Hewes, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2029-4399
WY-2003F; RS09216

 

Abstract:  A new type of avalanche risk-reducing snow supporting structure called a “snow supporting umbrella” or “SSU” was investigated for its potential effectiveness in preventing the natural release of snow avalanches. Because no existing design specifications or other publications address how the geometry, member arrangement, and connection details of a SSU should be selected, a research project to develop the SSU concept and a generic design process were funded by and performed for the Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT). Additional motivation for the project included the need to reinforce a region of the Milepost 151 Avalanche starting zone where small natural snow slab releases have occurred in between two rows of existing rigid steel snow supporting structures. An analysis of the interplay of various design parameters was performed, followed by the application of a structural analysis and design process for the design of three SSU to be fabricated and installed at the project site. Due to the lack of redundancy of the single ground anchor foundation of the SSU, a novel load-limiting slip device for the connection between the SSU and foundation was developed and implemented on the fabricated SSU. Three SSU were installed at the site where the previous small avalanches were observed and then monitored over a period of two winter seasons. No subsequent avalanche activity was observed after the row of SSU was added to the facility. Annual inspections of the SSU over two summer periods indicated that the SSU performed as intended and without noticeable distress in any of its elements. Installation of the SSU at the project site required significantly less labor on-site in the steep starting zone area compared to what would be needed to install rigid steel snow bridges or flexible snow nets. A cost comparison using data from four different passive avalanche defense projects in the United States including rigid, flexible, and semiflexible snow supporting structures indicates that the SSU concept has the potential for significant construction cost savings over the other two systems, primarily due to reduction in the number of foundations and the required onsite installation labor.

 

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.
 

Field Testing and Long-Term Monitoring of Selected High-Mast Lighting Towers

Jason B. Lloyd, PhD, PE, 0000-0001-8792-3278

Robert J. Connor, PhD, PE, 0000-0002-6964-3317

Ryan J. Sherman, PhD, PE, 0000-0001-7525-4775
WY-2004F; RS07217

Abstract:  Four high-mast lighting towers (HMLTs) were instrumented with sensors to monitor the weather and structural response to wind-induced vibrations. The four HMLTs were in different locales within the state of Wyoming, each site being selected specifically due to a history of failed HMLTs at those locations, or nearby. Several HMLTs have failed in recent years, some catastrophically, within Wyoming from fatigue crack growth at the base plate-to-tube wall welds. Hence the motivation for the study. Amateur video and some limited data from previous research both supported the possibility that large-amplitude mode I vibration events could be causing premature fatigue failures. In some cases it was surmised that ice accumulation on an HMLT could be contributing to changes in the aerodynamic response to varying wind events. The research team remotely monitored the four HMLTs with wind-based and stress-based triggers recording data of ambient weather conditions and the aerodynamic response of the HMLTs. The monitoring was carried out continuously for over two years. The instrumentation included an ice sensor capable of detecting the presence of ice, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and strain. This way, the research team would be able to determine what the structural response to the large-amplitude events would be and if the build-up of ice could be correlated to its occurrence.

Three large-amplitude events were recorded during the two years of field monitoring. Extreme stress ranges were observed during all three events, but particularly in the longest-lasting of the three, reaching peak stresses of up to 40 ksi (ranges of up to 78 ksi) and lasting tens of minutes, effectively consuming between 40 percent and 70 percent of the fatigue life in a single occurrence. The extreme events were found to be relatively rare and unpredictable in terms of when they might transpire.

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.

 

Assessment and Evaluations of I-80 Truck Loads and Their Load Effects: Phase 2: Service

Michael G. Barker: 0000-0001-8223-8271
Brian L. Goodrich: 0000-0003-4744-0102
Mark C. Jablin: 0000-0002-9639-8652
Jay A. Puckett: 0000-0002-0834-7549

WY-2004F; RS07217

 

Abstract:  

The research objective is to assess the performance (in terms of AASHTO design expectations for serviceability) of bridges along the Interstate 80 (I-80) corridor for Wyoming’s truck traffic.  Wyoming’s I-80 carries a large volume of cross-continental and large energy industry trucks compared to many states.  Moreover, frequent weather closures position trucks side-by-side and end-to-end for miles.  These vehicles then travel as a convoy once the road opens.   Wyoming’s unique truck traffic and traffic patterns potentially create larger demands on bridges than those considered in the development of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.  These characteristics may also be true for other states that contain unique traffic features.

 

Reliability studies and live load factor calibration were performed in this study using a database of in-service Wyoming bridges.  This database, consisting of 112 steel bridges and 60 prestressed concrete bridges, was used  to determine modified Service II and Service III live load factors to maintain adequate reliability against exceeding serviceability limit states.  The results confirm that the current live load factor of gL = 1.30 does not meet the serviceability expectations in the AASHTO Service II limit state (structural steel yielding) for Wyoming traffic on I-80.  The results also confirm that the current live load factor of gL = 0.80 does not meet the serviceability expectations in the AASHTO Service III limit state (prestressed concrete cracking) for Wyoming traffic on I-80.

 

Based on the I-80 weigh-in-motion (WIM) vehicle load characteristics that create load effects for Service II and Service III limit states, the reliability indices do not meet the target reliability in the AASHTO LRFD Specifications.  Raising the design live load factors, gL, directly and fairly uniformly increases reliability indices.  An increase in gL for Service II to 1.45 (from 1.30) and an increase in gL for Service III to 1.00 (from 0.80) increases all of the reliability indices to more closely match the reliability indices expected with the AASHTO LRFD Specifications.

Data: All archived data for this project can be found in the body of the report.  The Principle Investigator and WYDOT hold the intellectual property rights for the data.